Received: 24th September 2021; Revised: 01st December 2021, 07th March 2022, 15th March 2022; Accepted: 22nd March 2022


  • Sofia Cramerotti Educational Psychologist and Pedagogist, Department of Human Science, University of Verona, Verona, Italy



Professional competencies, Support teacher, Mentor, Tutor, Internship


The purpose of this article is to identify the role played by tutors and mentors in accompanying novice teachers within a specialization course aimed at supporting teachers for the classroom inclusion of students with disabilities. The specific aim of this qualitative research was to investigate the expert teachers’ features and how they (in the role of tutors and mentors) perceive the distinct role they play in the development of novice teachers’ professional competencies through peer review. In particular, the focus was on two different but interconnected activities: a) a direct internship supervised by a tutor; and b) an indirect internship supported by a mentor. Qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews with ten expert teachers and were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results show a wide proposal of features that characterize a good tutor and mentor in accompanying novice teachers’ growth. Secondly, the collected data provided an important contribution in that they helped identify the most important and useful activities (referring to the direct and indirect internships) for the development of competencies in future support teachers.


Andresen, L.W. (2000). A Useable, Trans-Disciplinary Conception of Scholarship. Higher

Education Research and Development, 19 (2), 137-153.

Bernstein, D.J. (2008). Peer review and evaluation of the intellectual work of teaching. Change:

The Magazine of Higher Learning, 40(2), 48–51.

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. London: Sage.

Chism, N. (2007). Peer Review Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Cramerotti, S. & Ianes, D. (2019). Il Progetto Expert Teacher. Definizione di un Syllabus di

competenze, individuazione di profili del docente ed esiti della prima fase di sperimentazione. L’integrazione scolastica e sociale, 18 (2), 167-183.

Danielson, C. (2007). Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching, Alexandria:

Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2013). Getting Teacher Evaluation Right: What Matters for

Effectiveness and Improvement. New York: Teachers College Press.

Davis, B., & Higdon, K. (2008). The effects of mentoring /induction support on beginning teachers. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 22(3), 261-274.

Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.

Gosling, D. (2009). A new approach to peer review of teaching. In D. Gosling & K.M. O’Connor, (eds.), Beyond the Peer Observation of Teaching, pp. 7–15. London: SEDA Publications.

Hammersley-Fletcher, L. & Orsmond, P. (2004). Evaluating our peers: Is peer observation a

Meaningful process? Studies in HE, 29, 489–503.

Hammersley-Fletcher, L. & Orsmond, P. (2005). Reflecting on reflective practices within peer

Observation. Studies in HE, 30, 213–224.

Hobson, A., Ashby, P., Malderez, A., & Tomlinson, P.D. (2009). Mentoring beginning teachers. What we know and what we don’t. Teaching and teacher education, 25, 207-216.

Hutchings, P. (1995). From Idea to Prototype: The Peer Review of Teaching. Washington: AAHE.

Ingersoll, R.M., & Strong, M. (2011). The impact of induction and mentoring programs for beginning teachers: A critical review of the research. Review of educational research, 81(2), 201-233.

Lyons, N. (2002). The personal self in a public story: The portfolio presentation narrative. In N.

OECD (2009). Evaluating and Rewarding the Quality of Teachers. Paris: International Practices.

OECD (2019). TALIS 2018 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning.

OECD Publishing.

Sundli, L. (2007). Mentoring—A new mantra for education? Teaching and teacher education,

(2), 201-214.

Wang, J., & Odell, S. J. (2002). Mentored learning to teach according to standards-based reform: A critical review. Review of educational research, 72(3), 481-546




How to Cite

Cramerotti, S. (2022). DEVELOPMENT OF PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCIES IN TEACHERS: THE ROLE OF TUTOR AND MENTOR: Received: 24th September 2021; Revised: 01st December 2021, 07th March 2022, 15th March 2022; Accepted: 22nd March 2022. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning, 6(1), 159–173.