Received: 20th August 2021; Revised: 05th December 2021, 10th March 2022, 17th March 2022; Accepted: 22nd March 2022


  • Leila Mekacher Doctor of Natural Sciences, Electrical Engineering, and IT Department, SRH Vocational Training Center, Neckargemünd, Germany



Authentic Learning, Education 4.0, Hybrid Learning, Immersive Technologies, Lifelong Learning, Microlearning, Smart Learning Environment


The term "4.0" refers here, as in all areas whether Industry 4.0, Work 4.0, or Society 4.0, to the paradigm of digitalization and support through new technologies. In the last few years, education and training are becoming more closely related to the labor market, and so the goal is to foster competent learners to meet the core skills for life and work in the 21st century. Building such a future-ready education system requires the design of curricula, that impart the necessary knowledge and skills for the modern workplace. The various pedagogical and technological innovations in recent years have created new concepts of learning environments, that optimize learners' ability to learn. They are commonly referred to as "smart learning environments". Innovative education based on advanced technologies should focus on stimulating thinking and creativity and address the individual differences of learners. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, combines some educational concepts such as micro and hybrid learning with the support of immersive technologies to develop smart learning environments for a personalized and gamified seamless learning experience. Second, demonstrates how the concept of Micro-hybrid-immersive learning enables a seamless transition between school and the world of work and achieves educational inclusion.


Assante, D., Caforio, A., Flamini, M., & Romano, E (2019). Smart Education in the context of Industry 4.0. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, United Arab Emirates, 8–11 April 2019; pp. 1140–1145.

Boboc, A. L., Orzan, G., Stoica, I., & Niculescu-Ciocan, C. (2018). Gamification and game-based learning– A solution for the Romanian education system. The International Scientific Conference eLearning and Software for Education., 1, 242–248.

Broughan, C., & Prinsloo, P. (2019). (Re)centering students in learning analytics: In conversation with Paulo Freire. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 45(SI1), 617– 628.

Bryan, S. J., Campbell, A., & Mangina, E. (2018). An AR/VR Educational Game. In IEEE games, entertainment, media conference (GEM), (pp. 1–9). Galway.

Cantabella, M., Martínez-España, R., Ayuso, B., Yáñez, J. A. & Muñoz, A. (2019). Analysis of student behavior in learning management systems through a Big Data framework. Future Generation Computer Systems, 90, 262-272.

Chaurasia S. S., Kodwani D., Lachhwani H., and Ketkar M. A. (2018). Big data academic and learning analytics: Connecting the dots for academic excellence in higher education, Int. J. of Educ. Manag. 32(6) 1099-1117.

Cheung S. K. S., Kwok L. F., Phusavat K. & Yang H. H. (2021). Shaping the future learning environments with smart elements: challenges and opportunities. Int J Educ Technol High Educ. 2021;18(1):16. Epub 2021 Mar 15. PMID: 34778521; PMCID: PMC7970780.

Hentsch, C. (2018). Virtual Reality in Education: How VR can be Beneficial to the Classroom.

Iatsyshyn, A. V., Kovach, V. O., Romanenko, Y., Deinega, I., Iatsyshyn, A. V., Popov, O. O., Kutsan, Y., Artemchuk, V., Burov, O. Y., & Lytvynova, S. (2019). Application of augmented reality technologies for the preparation of specialists of the new technological era. Augmented Reality in Education: Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop (AREdu 2019), Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine, March 22, 2019 / Edited by: Arnold E. Kiv, Mariya P. Shyshkina. – P. 181-200. – (CEUR Workshop Proceedings (, Vol. 2547). – Access mode:

Kim, S., Song, S. M., & Yoon, Y. I. (2011). Smart Learning Services Based on Smart Cloud Computing. Sensors 2011, 11, 7835-7850.

Kuppusamy, P. (2019). Smart Education Using Internet of Things Technology. Advances in Data Mining and Database Management.

Lee, L. K., & Cheung, S. K. (2020). Learning analytics: Current trends and innovative practices. Journal of Computers in Education, 7(1), 1-6.

Laine, T. H. (2018). Mobile educational augmented reality games: A systematic literature review and two case studies. Computers., 7(19), 11–15.

Mekacher, L. (2019). Augmented Reality (AR) and Virtual Reality (VR): The Future of Interactive Vocational Education and Training for People with Handicap. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning, 3(1).

Oyelere, S. S., Bouali, N., Kaliisa, Obaido G., Yunusa A. A. & Jimoh E. R. (2020). Exploring the trends of educational virtual reality games: a systematic review of empirical studies. Smart Learn. Environ. 7, 31 (2020).

Pavlidis, G. P., & Markantonatou, S. (2018). Playful education and innovative gamified learning approaches. In Handbook of Research on Educational Design and Cloud Computing in Modern Classroom Settings, pp. 321–341.

Pearce, A. (2021). Optimal Learning Using Technology: Amplifying Students Collaboration and Social Networking. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning,5(2), 19-32.

Peng, H., Ma, S. & Spector, J. M. (2019). Personalized adaptive learning: an emerging pedagogical approach enabled by a smart learning environment. Smart Learn. Environ. 6, 9.

Raja, R. & Nagasubramani, P. (2018). Impact of modern technology in education. Journal of Applied and Advanced Research.

Sghari, A. (2020). How Does the Digital Transformation Affect the Job of University Teachers? Summary of the Required Skills of University Teachers.

Tempelaar, D., Rienties, B. and Nguyen, Q. (2021). The contribution of dispositional learning analytics to precision education. Journal of Educational Technology and Society, 24(1) pp. 109–122.

Vesisenaho, M., Juntunen, M., Häkkinen, P., Pöysä-Tarhonen, J., Fagerlund, J., & Miakush, I. (2019). Virtual reality in education: Focus on the role of emotions and physiological reactivity. Journal of Virtual Worlds Research.

World Economic Forum (2020). Schools of the Future: Defining New Models of Education for the Fourth Industrial Revolution World Economic Forum.

Zhu, Z. T., Yu, M. H. & Riezebos, P. (2016). A research framework of smart education. Smart Learn. Environ. 3, 4 (2016).




How to Cite

Mekacher, L. (2022). EDUCATION 4.0: HYBRID LEARNING AND MICROLEARNING IN A SMART ENVIRONMENT: Received: 20th August 2021; Revised: 05th December 2021, 10th March 2022, 17th March 2022; Accepted: 22nd March 2022. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning, 6(1), 127–141.