• Rufo A. Labarrete Faculty, College of Education, Leyte Normal University, Tacloban City, Leyte, Philippines



K-12 Curriculum, Instructional Practices, Scaffolding, Writing Skill


This study aimed to assess the sixth grade teachers instructional scaffolding practices in writing as a macro language skill with the end view of developing a contextualized Detailed Lesson Plan (DLP). Using the descriptive qualitative research design, data were generated using open-ended survey questionnaire, and a focus group discussion. Results showed that the K-12 curricular contents for elementary writing were rather challenging to teach that is further aggravated by limited learning resources. Remediation Reinforcement Enrichment (RRE), Explicit Teaching (ET), Little Teacher Strategy, Group Work Technique and Detailed Lesson Plans (DLPs) are mainly utilized as primary scaffolds with the aid of visuals, graphic organizers, and technology-based learning tools. Though commendable, their scaffolding practices however still fell short in actualizing instructional scaffolding holistically. Thus, the need to further the elementary teachers’ knowledge on this dimension through professional advancement and similar activities.


Acuin, D. G., Petallana, M. L., & Esperas, G. C. (2018). Cooperative-Collaborative Learning in Enhancing Creative Writing Performance. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Research, 32(1), 164. doi:10.7719/jpair. V32i1.581

Aedy, S. (2013, March 13). Teaching Writing and Learning with Graphic Organizers ... Retrieved December 12, 2018, from

Araya, J. V. (2016). Scaffolding Writing Competence Through Process Writing and Error Correction. LAMDAG Journal of the Graduate School 2016, 7(1), 39-53. Retrieved from

Añonuevo, R. T. (2004). Do Students Perform Better in Composition Writing Using Computer-Aided Instruction? LEAPS: Miriam College Faculty Research Journal,23(1), 17-28. Retrieved February 4, 2019, from

Armendaris, F. (2009). Writing anxiety among English as a second language: Students enrolled in academic English writing classes (Doctoral dissertation) [Abstract].

Castromayor, A. M., & San Jose, A. E. (2019). Correcting in tandem in facilitating writing skills of students. International Journal of Education Research for Higher Learning,25(1), 153-165. Retrieved from

Dalagan, J. D., Morales, M. E., & Musni, F. M. (2011). Teaching Strategies Interspersed with Collaborative and Write Shop Activities: A Cooperative Learning Experience in Writing Classes. UIC Research Journal, 17(1).

Deligero-monte, R. (2016). Engaging students in enhancing writing competency. An integration of social media as a learning tool. LAMDAG Journal of Graduate School, 7(1), 55-76. Retrieved January 3, 2019, from

DO 42, s. 2016 - (n.d.). Retrieved from

Flower, L., & Hayes, J. R. (1981). A Cognitive Process Theory of Writing. College Composition and Communication, 32(4), 365.

Jacobi, M. (1991). Mentoring and Undergraduate Academic Success: A Literature Review. Review of Educational Research, 61(4), 505.

Hjortshoj, K. (2001). Understanding writing blocks. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Laadem, M. (2017). E-Learning Integration in Higher Education: Focus On Moroccan Departments of English. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning, 1(2), 115-133.

Labarrete, R. A. (2019). An Assessment of Alternative Learning System-Accreditation and Equivalency (ALS-A&E) Curriculum for Secondary Clientele (Unpublished master's thesis). University of San Carlos, Cebu City, Philippines.

Lundstrom, K., & Baker, W. (2009). To give is better than to receive: The benefits of peer review to the reviewers own writing. Journal of Second Language Writing, 18(1), 30-43.

Maricimoi, A. (2017). Using Audio Visual Media to Increase the Writing Skill of Students. SMCC Higher Education Research Journal, 4(1).

Massi, M. P. (n.d.). Interactive Writing in the EFL Class: A Repertoire of Tasks. Retrieved December 22, 2018, from

Min, H. (2006). The effects of trained peer review on EFL students’ revision types and writing quality. Journal of Second Language Writing, 15(2), 118-141.

Montecalvo, E. K. (2014). Electronic Learning: Alternative delivery of tutorials for the improvement of student’s writing skill. Progressio Journal of Human Development, 8(1), 48-65. Retrieved February 3, 2019, from

Nassim, S. (2018). Digital Storytelling: An Active Learning Tool for Improving Students’ Language Skills. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning, 2(1), 14-28.

Oted, J. O. (2014). View-Think-Write Strategy: Its Effectiveness in Improving Students’ Writing Proficiency. Progressio Journal on Human Development,8(1), 60-77. Retrieved November 3, 2018, from

Pineda, J. L., Dupa, M. B., & Torio, E. (2008). Teaching Strategies employed by the elementary school faculty of trinity university of Asia in motivating slow learners. The Trinitian Student Researcher, 1(1), 106-115. Retrieved from 525

Sayuti, R. (2013). A Reason to Write: Writing Through Student Journals. A Research Paper Presentation from the 11th Asia TEFL International Conference. Held on October 26-28, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines.

Teaching Writing and Learning with Graphic Organizers ... (n.d.). Retrieved January 4, 2019, from

Tomlinson, C. A., McTighe, J., & Svenningsen, B. (2010). Intégrer la différenciation pédagogique et la planification à rebours. Montréal: Chenelière Éducation.

Tompkins, G. E., & Jones, P. D. (2019). Teaching writing: Balancing process and product. NY, NY: Pearson.

Ugsad, MG (2017). The Effect of Weblog on the Filipino Learners’ Writing Performance. JPAIR Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 27 (1), 148-163. Retrieved from:

Villasor, H. B. (2018). Effectiveness of visual thinking strategy on creative writing skills among senior high school students. Tin-aw Graduate School Book of Abstract, 2(1). Retrieved January 6, 2019, from

Warschauer, M. (2010). Invited commentary: New tools for teaching writing. Language Learning & Technology, 14 (1), 3-8. Retrieved December 20, 2018, from

Yang, S. (2011). Exploring the effectiveness of using peer evaluation and teacher feedback in college students’ writing. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 20(1), 144-150. Retrieved December 22, 2018, from




How to Cite

Labarrete, R. A. (2019). SCAFFOLDING WRITING SKILL IN THE K-12 CURRICULUM . PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning, 3(1), 205–219.