• Imran Tufail Technology, Environment, Mathematics and Science Education Centre, Faculty of Education, University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand Institute of Education and Research (IER), University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Muhammad Khalid Mahmood National Accreditation Council for Teacher Education (NACTE), Higher Education Commission (HEC), Islamabad, Pakistan




Science Teaching Practices, Secondary Schools, Science Teachers, Science Students, Teaching Methods


This study was designed to stipulate an image of occurring science practices in secondary schools. The main objective of this study is to investigate the types of science teaching practices that have been preferred to use by science teachers to teach science subjects. This study delimits the secondary schools of Lahore, which is the second most populated city in Pakistan. The research was conducted on a sample of 60 schools [60 science teachers and 600 students]. The researchers captured the complete list of secondary schools of Lahore from official websites and schools were selected through random technique. The most senior science teacher opted for data collection in case of more than one science teacher availability at a single school. The study adopted a survey research design and data was collected through a newly developed reliable questionnaire with Cronbach alpha = 0.95. The data was entered and analysed by using SPSS. The study result reveals that secondary school science teachers prefer lecture and discussion methods for science teaching. Significantly, science teachers are less interested in using the inquiry method and science project-based learning in their classrooms. Science teachers should adopt recommended teaching methods to develop a better understanding of science among students.


Ajaja, O. (2007). Teaching Methods across Disciplines. Agbor, Nigeria: All well Publications.

Arends, R. (2012). Learning to Teach. 9th ed. Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw-Hill.

Barnett, J., & Hodson, D. (2001). Pedagogical context knowledge: Toward a fuller understanding of what good science teachers know. Science Education, 85(4), 426-453. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.1017

Bell, S. (2010). Project-based learning for the 21st century: Skills for the future. The clearing house, 83(2), 39-43. https://doi.org/10.1080/00098650903505415

Caleon, I. S., Tan, Y. S. M., & Cho, Y. H. (2018). Does teaching experience matter? The beliefs and practices of beginning and experienced physics teachers. Research in Science Education, 48(1), 117-149. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9562-6

Carpenter, J. M. (2006). Effective teaching methods for large classes. Journal of Family & Consumer Sciences Education, 24(2). 13-23

Casado, M. (2000). Teaching methods in higher education: A student perspective. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 12(2), 65-70. https://doi.org/10.1080/10963758.2000.10685283

Chui, J. (2020). Real-Time Learning Analytics for Face-to-Face Lessons. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning 4(2): 121–31. https://doi.org/10.20319/pijtel.2020.42.121131

Connelly, L. M. (2008). Pilot Studies. Medsurg Nursing 17(6):411–13. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2008.17.7.29056

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Darling-Hammond, L. (2008). Teacher Learning That Supports Student Learning. CA: Crown Press.

Davis, B. G. (2001). Tools for Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey-Brass.

Duit, R., and Maike, T. (2010). “On the Role of the Experiment in Science Teaching and Learning–Visions and the Reality of Instructional Practice. Retrieved June 02, 2020 from https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/On-the-role-of-the-experiment-in-science-teaching-*-Duit-Tesch/bf6f48f52f246adad5991f16e22fd5c9e69ec2f7

Eltanahy, M., & Sufian, F. (2019). Science Teachers’ and Students’ Perceptions of the Implementation of Inquiry-Based Learning Instruction in a Middle School in Dubai. Journal of Education 199(1):13–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022057419835791

Gess-Newsome, J. (2015). A Model of Teacher Professional Knowledge and Skill Including PCK: Results of the thinking from the PCK summit. (pp. 28–42) In Berry a, Friedrichsen, & J. Loughran (Eds.), Re-examining of pedagogical content knowledge in Science Education. London: Routledge.

Gillies, R. M., & Nichols, K. (2015). How to support primary teachers’ implementation of inquiry: Teachers’ reflections on teaching cooperative inquiry-based science. Research in Science Education, 45(2), 171-191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-014-9418-x

Iqbal, H. M., Azam, S., & Rana, A. R. (2009). Secondary School Science Teachers’ Views about the ‘Nature of Science.’ Bulletin of Education and Research 31(2):29–44.

Kauchak, D., and Eggen, P. (2017). Introduction to Teaching: Becoming a Professional. 6th ed. Pearson FL. USA

Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. https://doi.org/10.1016/0147-1767(85)90062-8

Malik, M. I., Farooq, & Rabia, T. (2016). The Comparative Study of Achievement of Male and Female Mathematics Students of Higher Secondary Schools and Colleges at Intermediate Level in Punjab. Bulletin of Education and Research 38(2):219–27.

Mansour, N. (2013). Consistencies and Inconsistencies between Science Teachers’ Beliefs and Practices. International Journal of Science Education 35(7):1230–75. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500693.2012.743196

Martinello, M. L., & Gillian, E. C. (2000). Interdisciplinary Inquiry in Teaching and Learning. ERIC.

Mavhunga, E., & Rollnick, M. (2013). Improving PCK of Chemical Equilibrium in Pre-Service Teachers. African Journal of Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education 17(1–2):113–25. https://doi.org/10.1080/10288457.2013.828406

Memon, G. R. (2007). Education in Pakistan: The Key Issues, Problems and the New Challenges. Journal of Management and Social Sciences 3(1):47–55.

Ministry of Education. (2017). National Education Policy 2017. Ministry of Education, Islamabad Pakistan

Ministry of Education. (2009). National Education Policy 2009. Ministry of Education, Islamabad Pakistan.

Ministry of Finance. (2002). Economic Survey of Pakistan 2002-03. Ministry of Finance, Islamabad Pakistan.

National Research Council. (2000). Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards: A Guide for Teaching and Learning. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.

Neuby, B. (2010). Inquiry Teaching in the College Classroom. Journal of Effective Teaching 10(1):4–21.

Neuman, W. L. (2014). Basic of Social Research Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. 2nd ed. USA: Pearson Education.

Park, S., & Chen, Y. C. (2012). Mapping out the integration of the components of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK): Examples from high school biology classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 49(7), 922-941. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.21022

Pratt, H., & Hackett, J. (1998). Teaching Science: The Inquiry Approach. Principal, 78(2), 20-22.

Qualters, D. (2002). Do Students Want to Be Active Learners. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning 51–60. Retrieved June 02, 2020, from http://josotl.indiana.edu/article/view/1588/1587

Sachs, J. (2003). Teacher professional standards: controlling or developing teaching? Teachers and teaching, 9(2), 175-186. https://doi.org/10.1080/13540600309373

Schneider, R. M., Krajcik, J., & Blumenfeld, P. (2005). Enacting reform‐based science materials: The range of teacher enactments in reform classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching: The Official Journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, 42(3), 283-312. https://doi.org/10.1002/tea.20055

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational researcher, 15(2), 4-14. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X015002004

Soares, L. (2020). Awakening Teachers Leaders: A New Paradigm in Education for School and Students Success. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning 4(2): 96–106. https://doi.org/10.20319/pijtel.2020.42.96106

Taber, K. S. (2018). The Use of Cronbach’s Alpha When Developing and Reporting Research Instruments in Science Education. Research in Science Education 48(6): 1273–96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2

Tseng, C. H., Tuan, H. L., & Chin, C. C. (2013). How to help teachers develop inquiry teaching: Perspectives from experienced science teachers. Research in Science Education, 43(2), 809-825. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11165-012-9292-3

Tufail, I. (2020). Science Teaching Practices in Public and Private Secondary Schools of Lahore, Pakistan. Presented on-line at the 10th ICTEL 2020 – International Conference on Teaching, Education & Learning, 08-09 June, Singapore, June 8.

Tufail, I., Eames, C., Buntting, C., & Cheng, M.M.W. (2019). One Teacher’s Enactment of PCK in a Secondary Chemistry Classroom. Presented at the Australasian Science Education Research Association, Queenstown, New Zealand.

Ualesi, Y., & Ward, G. (2018). Teachers' Attitudes Toward Teaching Science in a New Zealand Intermediate School. Australian Journal of Teacher Education 43(6): 35–49. https://doi.org/10.14221/ajte.2018v43n6.3

Wang, J. (2020). “An Awareness-Raising Approach to Teaching Small Talk in an EFL Classroom.” PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning 4(1): 01–11. https://doi.org/10.20319/pijtel.2020.41.0111

Warren, D. (1985). Learning from Experience: History and Teacher Education. Educational Researcher 14(10): 5–12. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X014010005

Williams, J., Eames, C., Hume, A., & Lockley, J. (2012). Promoting Pedagogical Content Knowledge Development for Early Career Secondary Teachers in Science and Technology Using Content Representations. Research in Science & Technological Education 30(3): 327–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/02635143.2012.740005

Woolfolk, A. (2013). Educational Psychology. 12th ed. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education.

Yoder, J. D., & Hochevar, C. M. 2005. Encouraging Active Learning Can Improve Students’ Performance on Examinations. Teaching of Psychology 32(2): 91–95. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328023top3202_2




How to Cite

Tufail, I., & Mahmood, M. K. (2020). TEACHING METHODS PREFERRED BY SCHOOL SCIENCE TEACHERS AND STUDENTS IN THEIR CLASSROOM. PUPIL: International Journal of Teaching, Education and Learning, 4(2), 332–347. https://doi.org/10.20319/pijtel.2020.42.332347