THE INDIVIDUALISM/COLLECTIVISM DICHOTOMY IN N. HAWTHORNE’S NOVEL “THE SCARLET LETTER”
Received: 30th May 2022; Revised: 13th June 2022, 29th June 2022; Accepted: 30th June 2022
Keywords:Dichotomy, Individualism, Collectivism, Sin, Strength of Character
This paper seeks to examine the novel The Scarlet Letter, published in 1850, by Nathaniel Hawthorne through individualism/collectivism dichotomy, highlighting the major chasm between the harsh 17th-century puritan community that demands total conformity from its members and heroine’s incessant struggle for individualism. Based on qualitative research, the analysis starts with a short introduction of individualism/collectivism dichotomy. It subsequently highlights the intense clash arising from the puritan morality and the heroine’s determination to create her own moral rules. The study found out that Hester’s strength of character and support for the community help to abate the dichotomy between the two parties, which leads to a fair degree of mutual acceptance.
Amorim, J. (2017). Hawthorne and Joffé: The Scarlet Letter and its cinematic adaptation [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Centro de Comunicação e Expressão–CCE]. https://repositorio.ufsc.br/bitstream/handle/123456789/188778/Joice%20Amorim%20TCC.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y.
Castilho, M.T. (2006). Utopianism in The Scarlet Letter. Nowhere Somewhere: Writing, Space and the Construction of Utopia (1st ed.), 109-117.
Chelliah, S. (2018). “Projection of ‘Sin’ and ‘Guilt’ as Common Human Experiences in Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter: A Brief Analysis”. International Journal of Development Research, 8 (03), 19224-19227.
Ghasemi, P., Abbasi, P. (2009). Thematic Analysis of Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, k@ta, 11(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.9744/kata.11.1.1-17
Hawthorne, N. (n.d.). The Snow-Image and Other Twice-Told Tales. Retrieved May 14, 2022, from https://www.ibiblio.org/eldritch/nh/oldn1.html
Hawthorne, N. (2010). The Scarlet Letter. London: HarperCollins Publishers.
Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work related values.
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kahhoul, I. (2011/2012). Puritanical Dimensions in The Scarlet Letter: Moral Demands Versus Individual Needs, [Magister dissertation, Mohamed Khider University]. http://thesis.univ-biskra.dz/440/1/ppuritanical_dimensions_in_the_scarlet_letter.pdf
Li, N. (2019). Reflection on Hawthorne's Use of Biblical Allusions and Symbolism in The Scarlet Letter. Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, 368, 663-666. https://doi.org/10.2991/icassee-19.2019.140
Liu.H, (2021). The Duality of Hester Prynne’s Image: Subversion and Submission. Cultural Communication and Socialization Journal, 2(1): 09-12. https://doi.org/10.26480/ccsj.01.2021.09.12
Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.
Mohammed, B.A., & Yahya, H.S. (2017). Symbolism in the Scarlet Letter. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 22 (4), 26-34. https://sociologydictionary.org/ https://doi.org/10.9790/0837-2204062634
Triandis, H. C., Leung, K., Villareal, M. V. & Clack, F. L. (1985). Allocentric versus idiocentric tendencies: Convergent and discriminant validation. Journal of Research in Personality, 19, 395-415.
Britannica. (n.d.). Dichotomy. In Britannica. Retrieved June 20, 2022, from https://www.britannica.com/dictionary/dichotomy
How to Cite
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.