PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people <div id="focusAndScope"> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>ISSN 2454-5899</strong></p> </div> en-US editor@grdspublishing.org (Editor, PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences) info@grdsweb.com (Dr. Davis Lazarus) Fri, 10 May 2024 04:50:48 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 BLACK MOUNTAIN COLLEGE SEMESTER: (RE) LEARNING EXPERIMENTATION IN ARTS AND CULTURE EDUCATION https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2286 <p><em>Black Mountain College Semester (BMCS) was an interdisciplinary teaching and public education project implemented in 2018 at Appalachian State University in mountainous western North Carolina, USA. BMCS drew over 30,000 attendees and participants despite the rural character of the project area. Based on the experimental pedagogy of the influential Black Mountain College (1934=1963), the ten-month, multi-sited BCMS project sought to create intentional spaces of interdisciplinary collaboration–bringing the humanities, social sciences, arts, and design sciences into conversation–but more importantly, to facilitate the development of experimental cross-disciplinary and academic-public collaborations independently of the project leadership team. This paper offers a brief overview of Black Mountain College, followed by a discussion of the decentralized project design and the analysis of two project case studies. BMCS planning started with the original College principles of experiential and democratic learning philosophy, which invited participation and collaboration across hierarchical academic silos. Fundamentally, the concept of independent inquiry, not specific project outcomes, drove this process. Faculty, administrators, staff, non-profit leaders, educators, and the public contributed to events as varied as exhibitions, public talks, workshops, publications, theater, music, and curriculum design across four project sites. The first case study describes an interdisciplinary faculty fellowship program, created by project leaders, to support the application of learning concepts from Black Mountain College in university courses. The second describes the process of creating an interactive website linked to three museum exhibitions that extended BMCS into public domains and extra-academic spaces of learning.&nbsp; Broadly, this paper analyzes the process of co-creating methods of experiential learning on and beyond a university campus. Project assessment data is utilized to contextualize public responses to BMCS and discuss future directions for the project.</em></p> William Schumann Copyright (c) 2024 William Schumann https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2286 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 REPRESENTING THE ISLAMIST POLITICS IN BANGLADESHI NEWSPAPERS: THE 2023 BARISHAL CITY CORPORATION ELECTION AS A CASE https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2287 <p><em>This study aims to explore the representation and news coverage of an Islamist political party- Islami Andolon Bangladesh (IAB) in three Bangladeshi mainstream and ‘quality’ daily newspapers- the Daily Star (DS), the Daily Janakantha (DJ) and the New Age (NA). In the context of the city corporation election- the 2023 Barishal City Corporation (BCC), the study has been conducted. It examines if the dailies either sidelined, ignored or favored this Islamist party. It observes where they pay more or less news value about IAB and its electoral campaign. Additionally, it argues that the candidate of IAB used myth through speeches to encourage voters. The myth— if you vote for hand-fan (electoral symbol of IAB), Allah and his messenger (prophet Hazrat Muhammad) will have the votes —was unchallenged and unquestioned and the advice not to use misinformation and misguide the voters found absent in the dailies. Though the IAB could not win the election, it was expected that mass media as social institutions would come forward with accurate information to inform people wisely and so that ordinary people would not be misguided. Through quantitative and qualitative content analysis, this study leads to the outcomes that these newspapers were silent to uphold the activities of IAB. The DS and DJ had a propensity to sideline and ignore the IAB and its electioneering despite receiving the second highest vote in the election. They prioritized ruling party Awami League (AL) and Jatiya Party (JaPa) while the NA prioritized IAB through providing a better representation and emphasizing on different allegations made by this party. In future, this research can be a basement or pioneer for the researchers who will intend to look into the perspective of newspapers on political parties</em></p> Md. Rana Mia Copyright (c) 2024 Md. Rana Mia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2287 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CENTRAL STATE VS REGIONAL AUTONOMY - POLITICAL ELITE’S ACTION STRATEGY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2288 <p><em>The role of the autonomous institutions is significant in the elaboration of the specific strategies conducive for the political elite of either regional autonomy or central state to achieve their territorial, political and economic goals. Functional autonomous institutions enable the political elite to mobilize its ethnic group and radicalize demands. Rational assessment of the geographic location, instrumentalization of primordial markers (focus on historical memory) and constructivist ascriptions along with structural situation in and out of both, the autonomy and central state defines contemplated ethnic politics with far-going consequences of the both, central state and autonomy. Autonomy’s political elite activates primordial ascriptions, as well as, constructionist attitudes, considers geographic location to mobilize ethnic followers, press claims for secession and influence central authority to upgrade autonomous status through negotiations or violent confrontation. The Central state political elite’s decision about action strategy selection depends on the structure of situation inside and outside of the country. While operationalizing selected strategy central administration applies primordial and constructivist approaches to impact local authority’s decision- making process.&nbsp; Two autonomous republics of the Russian Federation, Tatarstan and Chechnya, are explored in the first decade after collapse of the Soviet Union to test theoretically identified factors impacting formation of ethnic politics and action strategies in the central state and autonomy. The methods’ triangulation (process-tracing method, discourse analysis of the official document and public speeches and semi-structured interviewing) was utilized to validate the research findings. On its way to upgrade autonomous status, Tatarstan built civic nationalism guaranteeing peaceful coexistence of the ethnic groups. Chechnya’s oppressive historic experience intensified rigid ethnic politics leading to protracted ethnic confrontation. </em></p> Nino Pavlenishvili Copyright (c) 2024 Nino Pavlenishvili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2288 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 USE JD-R THEORY TO EXPLORE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE EXPERIENCE AND EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT—TAKING JOB DEMANDS AS THE MODERATING VARIABLE https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2289 <p><em>Past research has proven that employee experience has a positive impact on employee engagement. Based on the conceptual framework of Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) model, this study regards efficient employee experience as a job resource to explore the impact of "employee experience" and” job demands” on employee engagement in organizations. Work requirements are further divided into challenge demand and hindrance demand. This study adopts the experimental design of the scenario method and uses two two-factor independent sample designs, namely 2x2(employee experience is high / employee experience is low x challenging job demands is high / challenging job demands is low) and 2x2(employee experience is high / employee experience is low x hindering job demands is high / hindering job demands is low).A total of 176 valid questionnaires were collected. The research results found that when employee experience is high, employee engagement is higher than when employee experience is low. Employee experience and job demands have an interactive effect on employee engagement. When employee experience is high, employee engagement will be higher when challenging job demands are added than when hindering job demands are added. It is expected that the results of this study can help in theoretical and practical applications</em></p> Mei Jhen Yin, Chi Yu Chen, Yi Wen Yang, Po Han Hsu Copyright (c) 2024 Mei Jhen Yin, Chi Yu Chen, Yi Wen Yang, Po Han Hsu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2289 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYSIS OF THE PROFITABILITY OF ALBANIAN BANK USING TIME SERIES MODELS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2290 <p><em>This research focuses on predicting the profitability of the Bank of Albania, specifically measured by Return on Assets (ROA), by employing advanced time series analysis techniques. ROA is a fundamental financial metric reflecting the bank's ability to efficiently utilize its assets to generate profit, and it holds crucial implications for the stability and sustainability of the central bank. In this research, we have obtained a monthly dataset regarding the profitability of Albanian banks (Roa), covering the period from January 2016 to March 2023. Following an extensive data analysis, we have determined that the SARIMAX(0, 0, 1)x(2, 0, [1, 2], 12) model is the most suitable option for modeling our dataset. The SARIMAX(0, 0, 1) element signifies a non-seasonal moving average component, addressing short-term fluctuations and irregularities in the data. The seasonal component, (2, 0, [1, 2], 12), takes into account both annual and semi-annual patterns, aligning with the observed seasonal trends in the data. The results are expected to be instrumental for policymakers, financial analysts, and stakeholders concerned with the Bank of Albania's financial health. By applying time series analysis to ROA prediction, this research not only aims to enhance the central bank's financial decision-making capabilities but also contributes to the broader understanding of financial stability within the context of Albania's economic landscape</em></p> Olsi Xhoxhi Copyright (c) 2024 Olsi Xhoxhi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2290 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 IMPACT OF FINANCIAL REPORTING QUALITY ON INVESTMENT EFFICIENCY AROUND THE GLOBE https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2291 <p><em>In developed markets, the documented enhancement of investment efficiency due to financial reporting quality has yet to address the question of whether such a correlation persists in emerging, frontier, and diverse markets. This study investigates the association between financial reporting quality and investment efficiency across 21,741 publicly listed firms spanning 36 countries worldwide, encompassing developed, emerging, frontier, and other markets. Comprehensive accounting data spanning the years 2000 to 2022 is gathered for all listed firms in 40 industries across these 36 countries having 166,453 firms-year observations. Causal connections are examined through fixed-effect regression analysis, supplemented by additional tests and robustness checks utilizing alternative proxies. Concerns about endogeneity are mitigated through 2SLS analysis. The results reveal a positive impact of financial reporting quality on investment efficiency for firms in developed, emerging, frontier, and other markets. Our exploration of both over-investment and under-investment scenarios demonstrates a more pronounced link between financial reporting quality and investment efficiency in the underinvestment scenario. These findings contribute to the existing body of evidence, indicating that beyond its influence on investment efficiency in developed markets, the relationship between financial reporting quality and investment efficiency holds true globally. This encompasses emerging, frontier, and other markets, characterized by varying levels of reporting quality and financial frameworks</em></p> Muhammad Azhar Khan, Nabeel Safdar Copyright (c) 2024 Muhammad Azhar Khan, Nabeel Safdar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2291 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BEYOND FRIENDSHIP: UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF COST IN GIFT CHOICES FOR ONESELF AND OTHERS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2292 <p><em>This study explores how social closeness and self-identification influence the monetary value of gifts chosen for friends and for oneself. Integrating the Self-expansion Model with Resource Scarcity Theory, we provide insights into consumer behavior in gift selection under varying social and financial contexts.</em></p> Hyung Jun Kim, Jongkun Jun, Jooyoung Kim Copyright (c) 2024 Hyung Jun Kim, Jongkun Jun, Jooyoung Kim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2292 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON THE IMAGE NARRATIVE ISSUES IN ANIMATION NARRATIVE OF NOVICE ANIMATORS’ ANIMATION - A CASE STUDY OF THE SHORTLISTED SHORT FILMS IN THE 2019 TAINAN ANIMATION AGE FESTIVAL https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2293 <p><em>The best animation depends on the image narrative and the use of the lens. In order to connect between the animation and the audience, both skills are significant and professional. General animation narrative requires that the story content be complete, have a beginning and an end, and pay attention to cause and effect. Through the structure of the beginning and development, the story can be advanced step by step. However, it’s important and challenging for novice animators to both deliver scientific knowledge and storytelling in a short. Whether it is the timing of the shot, the misplacement of the character's position, unclear vocabulary, unclear movements, or expressions, etc., many factors may cause the audience to not understand.</em></p> <p><em>Therefore, given this situation, this study collected 6 animations which were made by students from the 2019 Tainan Animation Age Festival and then found out the common problems with novice animators by conducting participant observation and case study research. The result demonstrates the more common problem for novice animators is the animated image narrative, such as insufficient frames, unclear expression of character movements and expressions, unclear use of lenses, etc. This result can be a reference for novice animators or beginners.</em></p> Ya-Hsueh Lee, Yu-Yun Zhang Copyright (c) 2024 Ya-Hsueh Lee, Yu-Yun Zhang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2293 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EXPLORING THE INNOVATIVE APPROACH OF TEACHING AND LEARNING FOR TERTIARY EDUCATION – IN THE FIELD STUDY OF ACCOUNTING https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2295 <p><em>Innovative approaches to teaching and learning have become indispensable in recent years, and the field of accounting is no exception. The use of various innovative approaches such as the crowdsourcing model, active learning, formative assessment, gamification, and active use of technology are examples of innovative pedagogies that can transform teaching and learning for tertiary education. These pedagogies can target skills that most impact students’ career prospects and social lives, and secure the necessary depth and breadth of skills needed for lifelong learning.</em></p> <p><em>This research aims to explore the effectiveness of innovative pedagogies in teaching accounting. The study will involve interviews and surveys of accounting students to gather their perspectives on how innovative approaches impact their learning process. The research will investigate how innovative pedagogies can improve student engagement, enhance motivation, increase capacity for critical thinking skills, provide personalized adaptive learning processes, and foster learning development through collaboration.</em></p> <p><em>In summary, this research seeks to contribute to the growing body of literature on innovative pedagogies in accounting education. By exploring the effectiveness of innovative approaches, this study aims to provide insights into how accounting educators can improve their teaching practices and better prepare students for the demands of the modern human resource market on novice accountants.</em></p> Van Kam Tchiang Copyright (c) 2024 Van Kam Tchiang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2295 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PROCESS OF EXPLORING CRITERIA FOR OBSERVING CHILDHOOD PLAY TO SUPPORT EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHERS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2296 <p><em>The purpose of this study is to investigate the process of exploring criteria for observing childhood play to support early childhood teachers. This study was conducted using a convergent design among mixed methods. ‘Literature research’ and ‘Delphi survey technique’ were used as methods of quantitative data collection, and ‘participation observation’ was used as a method of qualitative data collection. As a result of the study, observation criteria for a total of 21 questions in 3 areas were derived, including 7 questions on ‘play flow’, 7 questions on ‘play motivation’, and 7 questions on ‘peer play behavior’. This criteria for observing childhood play helps early childhood teachers to understand childhood play in depth from the children's perspective. In addition, it is expected that this standard can be used as a standard for observing childhood play with increased objectivity by reducing cases where each early childhood teacher who uses this standard interprets it differently due to subjective opinions. Furthermore, It is expected that this criterion will help early childhood teachers in kindergartens accurately understand childhood play and support childhood play.</em></p> YungEui Yoo, BoKyoung Cho, SunHee Yang, MyeongHa Lee Copyright (c) 2024 YungEui Yoo, BoKyoung Cho, SunHee Yang, MyeongHa Lee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2296 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SERIOUS LEISURE LEVEL AND WORK OF KOREAN WOMEN'S BASEBALL CLUBS - LEISURE CONFLICT https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2297 <p><em>&nbsp; </em><em>The purpose of this study is to verify the differences and relationships in work-leisure conflict based on the level of serious leisure among female baseball enthusiasts who participate in baseball as a serious leisure activity. To achieve this goal, a survey was conducted using a purposive sampling method among female baseball enthusiasts. Out of the collected surveys, a total of 175 were used for the final analysis, excluding 34 responses that were deemed insincere. In this study, exploratory factor analysis, cluster analysis, K-means cluster analysis, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and multiple regression analysis methods were employed. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS 25.0 Program and AMOS 26.0 Program.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp; The results of the analysis showed the following: Firstly, the analysis of differences in work-leisure conflict based on the level of serious leisure revealed a significant difference among female baseball enthusiasts. Secondly, the differences in the four sub-factors of work-leisure conflict based on the level of serious leisure were examined. Post-hoc analysis results indicated that only the negative affect_WL and time pressure_WL factors had significant differences based on the level of serious leisure. Thirdly, the impact of sub-factors of serious leisure on work-leisure conflict showed that only the personal effort factor had a negative influence on work-leisure conflict.This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the level of serious leisure among female baseball enthusiasts participating in baseball as serious leisure and work-leisure conflict. Through this research, a deeper understanding of the lives of women participating in sports activities as serious leisure is sought</em></p> Mi-Lyang Kim, Rak-Heung Choi , Myeong-Ha Lee Copyright (c) 2024 Mi-Lyang Kim, Rak-Heung Choi , Myeong-Ha Lee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2297 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 HOW THE PARATEXT SURVIVED THE MASTERPIECE https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2298 <p><em>There are 164 survived manuscripts</em><em> of the masterpiece of the Georgian and world literary heritage The Man in the Panther Skin by Shota Rustaveli (12<sup>th</sup> century)</em><em>, rewritten in the 17<sup>th</sup> century and after. The oldest record belongs to the edge of the 16<sup>th</sup>-17<sup>th</sup> centuries</em><em> and</em> <em>t</em><em>he oldest manuscript dates back to 164</em><em>6</em><em>. </em></p> <p><em>Before the appearance of the</em> <em>1</em><em>st printed version, that is, until 1712, the epic reached in one editorial version, which is clearly not from Rustveli’s hands. All manuscripts containing this edition are preceded by the p</em><em>s</em><em>eudo</em><em>-R</em><em>ustavelian</em><em> introductory</em><em> stanza</em> <em>that presents the poem as a secular work differing from the church ideology and writings</em><em>; which </em><em>teaches and advises the reader to distance themselves from the secular ideology of Persian origin</em><em> represented in the epic, and says that</em><em> monks and nuns are forbidden to pay attention to this ideology</em><em>, so they mustn't read this text.</em> <em>It is interesting, that o</em><em>nly those manuscripts of the epic have survived, which represented this one and only redaction </em><em>where </em><em>the text was preceded by a pseudo-Rustavelian stanza.</em></p> <p><em>The detailed information on the manuscripts of The Man in the Panther Skin and the reality which made the pseudo-Rustavelian stanza to be useful in survival of “The Man in the Panther Skin” will be discussed in the current paper</em></p> Sophia Guliashvili Copyright (c) 2024 Sophia Guliashvili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2298 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYZING PUBLIC HEALTH CONCERNS THROUGH TEXT MINING AND SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS: A CASE STUDY OF COVID-19 PUBLIC OPINION ANALYSIS FROM ONLINE COMMUNITY FORUMS IN TAIWAN https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2299 <p><em>In the past, many quantitative studies in public health relied on traditional descriptive statistical data and less on analyzing unstructured text data. However, in the era of close online communication, a huge amount of text information related to public health issues is generated in online communities every day. COVID-19 pandemic should be one of the most important public health events in Taiwan since 2020. Many people express their views and feelings on the epidemic issue in online forums. In this research, the aim is to apply text mining and social network analysis to analyze the sentiment and topics related to COVID-19 in PTT, the most popular online community forum of social media in Taiwan. We used topic modeling to extract COVID-19 related topics and keywords, as well as sentiment analysis to explore the attitudes and emotional tendencies of the online community towards various issues, and data visualization methods such as word clouds and network graphs to present the research results. Additionally, we plan to conduct cluster analysis on the authors and accounts of the articles to determine if there is a phenomenon of specific groups influencing the COVID-19 public opinion. The expected outcome of this research is to provide a reference for the implementation of public health policies and to promote the value of sentiment analysis in public health management.</em></p> <p><em>After conducting text mining analysis on the articles published in the COVID-19 forum of PTT in 2021, especially the period of Taiwan's COVID-19 escalation from June to August 2021. The overall discussion volume and sentiment can be roughly divided into three peaks. The first peak started to rise in mid-May and reached its peak in mid-June. The second peak occurred in mid-July, and the negative sentiment was significantly higher than the positive sentiment. The last peak occurred in late August and had the highest discussion volume among the three peaks. In each peak of sentiment, negative sentiment was mostly higher than positive sentiment. Our suggestion is to focus on the following research results that Public health managers can use daily text mining results by our way to assist in judging public reactions under current epidemic policies, and the positive and negative sentiment levels in sentiment analysis can reflect whether policies may lead to a crisis outbreak. Observing the subsequent changes in sentiment can avoid affecting the implementation effectiveness of the next policy or causing a more serious public opinion crisis. This research hopes to promote the value of sentiment analysis in public health management by visualizing the complex online forum opinions into easy-to-understand charts, which can serve as a reference for decision-makers in judging online public opinion.</em></p> Shun-Chuan Chang Copyright (c) 2024 Shun-Chuan Chang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2299 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT AND CARBON EMISSION INTENSITY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2300 <p><em>Theoretic and empirical literature provides debate relationships between financial development and carbon emissions. Does financial development matters for carbon emissions? This study considers two additional aspects into the field. First is to consider a comprehensive measure of financial development that takes the functions of financial depth, efficiency, and access into account. Second, the nonlinear finance-carbon relationships build on the different development stages of financial system is considered. Considering the above two dimensions, this study explores the dynamic effects of financial development on carbon emissions utilizing pooled mean group estimator (PMG). By analyzing a panel of data for 82 countries from 1991 to 2020, we conclude that the effect of financial development on carbon emissions varies by the financial functions and the level of financial development. We find that financial access and financial efficiency are two critical functions reduce carbon emission intensity, while financial depth has an ambiguous effect on carbon emission intensity. To ensure environmental quality, this study stresses that financial system should provide broadly affordable financial services and increases efficiency</em>.</p> Su-Yin Cheng, Han Hou Copyright (c) 2024 Su-Yin Cheng, Han Hou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2300 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 KNOWLEDGE IS POWER: HOW SUBSIDIARY CREATE KNOWLEDGE BY RELATIONAL EMBEDDEDNESS AND KNOWLEDGE SPILLOVERS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2304 <p><em>In this study, the relationship between environmental competitiveness and knowledge creation in subsidiaries is examined, suggesting that </em><em>external relational embeddedness</em><em> serves as a mediator and knowledge spillover acts as a moderator of this relationship. We analyzed a sample of 189 subsidiaries in Shanghai, Mainland China. The findings indicate that environmental competitiveness has a positive effect on the external embeddedness of subsidiaries. Specifically, subsidiary </em><em>external relational embeddedness</em><em> not only directly affects subsidiary absorptive capacity and knowledge creation but also has a fully mediating effect on this relationship. Regarding the effect of knowledge spillovers, only unconscious knowledge spillovers allow subsidiaries to expand their relational networks, increase their sources of knowledge, and notably increase their opportunities for knowledge creation. Both the theoretical and empirical implications are further discussed.</em></p> Lu-Jui Chen Copyright (c) 2024 Lu-Jui Chen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2304 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPACT OF INFORMATION TRANSPARENCY ON FIRM PERFORMANCE: EVIDENCE FROM CHINA https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2306 <p><em>Nowadays, with the concern of the public for corporate social responsibility, firms are increasingly concerned with social responsibility, and they need to know whether social responsibility is favourable for their profit. The study focuses on 3,536 Chinese firms and collects the data of them from 2006 to 2021. The study analyses the data with the method of regression to find the relationship between information transparency and ROA, as well as the moderating effects of voluntary disclosure and company loss. We also run regressions with a lagged score of information transparency instead of the current score as a robust check. After analysis, we find that a high level of information transparency is significantly beneficial for a great firm performance. Additionally, this relationship exhibits an increasing marginal effect in the firms in which information disclosure is voluntary and the firms that are facing losses. The findings of this study provide useful guidance for firm managers about whether to develop high information transparency</em></p> Yangming Fang Copyright (c) 2024 Yangming Fang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2306 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF BENEFITS AND SACRIFICES FACTORS OF E-COMMERCE PAID MEMBERSHIP ON THE PERCEIVED VALUE AND INTENTION TO CONTINUE USING E-COMMERCE https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2307 <p><em>In this study, we apply VAM to explore the benefits and sacrifice factors associated with paid membership in domestic e-commerce and investigate the impact on perceived value and users' intention to continue using e-commerce. Additionally, this study assesses whether the impact of these factors on perceived value varies by membership type. Perceived benefit factors for paid e-commerce members include differentiation, enjoyment, sharing, point benefit, discount benefit, content benefit, and delivery benefit. Perceived sacrifices include fee, complexity, and lost opportunity. In the case of Coupang Rocket Wow, discount benefit, delivery benefit, and opportunity loss have a significant impact on perceived value. In the case of Naver Plus membership, discount benefit, point benefit, and fee were found to have a significant impact on perceived value. The perceived value of Coupang Rocket Wow and Naver Plus membership has a positive effect on the intention to continue using Coupang and Naver. Additionally, it was found that there was a significant difference in the impact of opportunity loss on perceived value between Coupang Rocket Wow and Naver Plus Memberships</em></p> Soeon Park Copyright (c) 2024 Soeon Park https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2307 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF GENERATIVE-AI RESPONSES ON USER EXPERIENCE AFTER AI HALLUCINATION https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2308 <p><em>The integration of generative artificial intelligence (</em><em>GenAI</em><em>) systems into our daily lives has led to the phenomenon of "AI hallucination," where AI produces convincing yet incorrect information, undermining both user experience and system credibility. This study investigates the impact of AI's responses, specifically appreciation and apology, on user perception and trust following AI errors. Utilizing attribution theory, we explore whether users prefer AI systems that attribute errors internally or externally and how these attributions affect user satisfaction. A qualitative methodology, featuring interviews with individuals aged 20 to 30 who have experience with conversational AI, has been employed. Respondents preferred AI to apologize in hallucination situations and to attribute the responsibility for the error to the outside world. Results show that transparency in error communication is essential for maintaining user trust, with detailed explanations. The research contributes to the understanding of how politeness and attribution strategies can influence user engagement with AI and has significant implications for AI development, emphasizing the need for error communication strategies that balance transparency and user experience.</em></p> Hayoen Kim Copyright (c) 2024 Hayoen Kim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2308 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 EXPLORING ALGORITHMIC EXPERIENCES IN OTT: WITH A MIXED-METHODS APPROACH https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2310 <p><em>This paper addresses the challenge of 'poverty in the midst of abundance' in OTT services, where a vast array of content makes it difficult for users to find what suits their tastes, often leading to subscription cancellations. U.S. market studies show users spend an average of 10.5 minutes searching for content, while in South Korea, they experience psychological fatigue during this process. This indicates a need for improved recommendation algorithms to enhance user experience and reduce service churn</em> <em>The research focuses on identifying attributes in OTT recommendation algorithms that users prefer, aiming to understand which specific features of recommendations are most valued by users. Findings reveal that effective recommendation systems, tailored to user preferences and feedback, can significantly enhance the user experience. Improved search interfaces and content curation are crucial for increasing user trust and satisfaction.</em> <em>The paper provides an academic foundation for understanding algorithmic interplay in OTT services and practical guidance for companies to develop more effective recommendation strategies. This research underscores the importance of user-centric approaches in OTT platforms to address the content overload problem and enhance overall service quality</em></p> DongA Jeong, Sang Woo Lee Copyright (c) 2024 DongA Jeong, Sang Woo Lee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2310 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSMENT OF SUCCESS INDICATORS ASSOCIATED WITH MANUFACTURING IC CHIPS IN INDIAN SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2312 <p><em>Integrated circuit plays a crucial role in reducing the size, increasing the processing speed, and enhancing the dependability on the electronic devices. Notably, the widespread use of these technologies has led to advancements in various sectors, including the communications, healthcare, and automobile industry. This study rank and identifies the critical success indicators associated with the manufacturing IC chips&nbsp;in the Indian semiconductor industry by employing one sample t-test approach. Based on the existing literature, the study investigates sixteen success indicators associated with the manufacturing IC chips in India. In addition, experts from the semiconductor manufacturing organization have validated these factors concerning the Indian semiconductor industry. The research concludes that “Monitor the Time-to-Market (SI7)”, “Enhance Customer Satisfaction (SI13)”, “Assess the Yield Rate (SI11)”, and “Calculate the Return on Investment (ROI) for Cost (SI5)”, are the critical success indicators associated with manufacturing of IC chips, as per the t-test analysis from 152 respondents working in the semiconductor sectors. The findings have multiple implications for businesses and policymaker, and can assist various stakeholders, including global semiconductor companies, domestic manufacturers, and fabless semiconductor firms</em></p> Karam Bharat Singh, Subhas Chandra Misra Copyright (c) 2024 Karam Bharat Singh, Subhas Chandra Misra https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2312 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 SOVEREIGN GEOGRAPHIES, ERRANT PARTS & EVERYTHING IN ITS PLACE https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2321 <p><em>We exist in a significant geo-political nexus in the history of global development.&nbsp; African nations of the Sahel and indigenous peoples around the world have begun to kinetically resist neo-colonial initiatives to reimpose past suppressions.&nbsp;&nbsp; This paper surveys developments from 15th and 16th Century Papal Bulls through, government legislation and policy developments including the American Indian removal act of 1830, Berlin Conference of 1884-85, the Morgenthau Plan, late 20th Century Neo-Colonial exploitation and continuing early 21st century attempts at re-inscription of emergent rentier oppressions and trajectories. Within this context, this piece concludes with a pointed discussion of social media and its place in subverting the governmental attempts to control the narrative of the global order in light of recent geo-political developments and the global history of suppression. </em></p> James S. Moy Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2321 Tue, 12 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE INFLUENCE OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY CERTIFICATION ON CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE IN THE NETHERLANDS MARKET: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF COMPANIES FROM INDONESIA AND THE NETHERLANDS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2322 <p><em>This study explores the relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) certification, product country of origin, and consumer acceptance in the Netherlands market, focusing on coffee beans. Rooted in Sen &amp; Bhattacharya (2001) and Matten &amp; Moon's (2008) insights, the research considers the moderating effect of the country of origin, drawing on Peterson &amp; Jolibert's (1995) perspectives. By using a randomized detailed survey and a controlled experiment from 200 participants, the study examines the Netherlands market consumer perceptions of companies with high levels of CSR certification from a developed country, the Netherlands, and a developing country, Indonesia. Results confirm a positive correlation between a high level of CSR certification and consumer acceptance in the Netherlands. The influence of the Netherlands as the product's origin positively moderates this relationship. Surprisingly, products from Indonesia also show a positive impact, contrary to expectations. The findings stress the strategic role of CSR certification for firms in the Netherlands market, irrespective of origin. However, caution is advised due to limitations, including potential bias and a small sample size. In conclusion, this research contributes nuanced insights for businesses navigating global markets, emphasizing the need for a comprehensive understanding of CSR's impact on consumer acceptance</em>.</p> Haidar Rahmady Indratno Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2322 Tue, 12 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PROVOKING CREATIVITY IN BUSINESS: THE IMPACT OF PROMOTION AND PREVENTION PROBLEM-FRAMING ON CREATIVITY IN THE COVID-19 ERA https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2323 <p><em>Amidst the pivotal role of creativity in business survival, particularly accentuated by the recent COVID-19 pandemic, this study puts importance on the managers' influence on guiding employee creativity. Grounded in regulatory focus theory, prior research traditionally favored promotion-focus over prevention-focus in shaping creativity. However, this study challenges this notion by investigating the impact of promotion and prevention problem-framing on creativity and hypothesizing whether previous findings remain robust even in the unprecedented changes brought about by the pandemic. Conducting an online survey with 218 British students, randomly assigned to promotion or prevention conditions, participants generated creative ideas linked to health improvement or maintenance. Unexpectedly, prevention problem-framing exhibited a slightly greater influence on creativity than promotion problem-framing, offering quite a novel perspective. While participants generally reported a relaxed attitude towards the pandemic, awareness of its inherent risks persisted. These findings highlighted the dynamic interplay between problem-framing and creativity, especially in unprecedented situations, emphasizing the need for managerial flexibility in leveraging these dynamics to enhance employee creativity</em>.</p> Imala Askania Faza Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2323 Tue, 12 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY ON THE GLOBAL STAGE: A LEGITIMACY EXAMINATION IN EMERGING MARKETS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2324 <p><em>Prior research suggests that emerging market multinationals (EMNEs) increasingly adopt corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a tool to gain legitimacy abroad. Although many scholars have investigated the relationship between CSR and Internationalization to be positive, a number of factors that influence the relationship have been continuously studied in recent years. To examine the CSR-Internationalization relationship in the context of EMNEs, it is necessary to take a different theoretical approach than for developed market multinationals. Building on stakeholder theory, this thesis investigates the effect of CSR on the Scope of Internationalization of EMNEs including the moderating effect of host market development level and state ownership. To address this research question, I performed a multiple linear regression analysis on a sample of 105 EMNEs. Based on this theoretical approach, I predict a positive relationship between CSR and Internationalization and a positive moderating effect of host market development level and state ownership on that relationship. The findings of this thesis conclude that CSR has a significant positive effect on the scope of internationalization, while the effect of host market development level and state ownership remains unclear and insignificant. It sheds light on the importance of considering non-economic factors in understanding the international expansion of firms from emerging markets.</em></p> Nathaniel Antaresta Purwanto Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2324 Tue, 12 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DETERMINANTS OF IPO UNDERPRICING IN THE INDONESIAN MARKET https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2325 <p><em>This thesis studied the determinants of IPO underpricing in Indonesia by examining 277 IPOs in Indonesia from 2016-2022. This study found that firm age has a significant negative relationship with the level of underpricing while Covid-19 pandemic has significant positive relationship. We argue that information asymmetry and uncertainty explains the underlying reason behind our findings</em>.</p> Dzaky Adzhary Dharmawan Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2325 Tue, 12 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 WHAT IS THE IMPACT OF CIRCULAR ECONOMY IMPLEMENTATION ON COUNTRY’S WEALTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION 27 COUNTRIES? : AN EMPIRICAL STUDY WITH EUROSTAT DATA https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2326 <p><em>Circular Economy is considered to be the most appropriate approach to achieve a sustained economy in a sustainable way. Although many scholars have investigated the impact of circular economy implementation on how it will contribute to a country’s economy the results are still vague. To examine the relationship of Circular Economy and its impact towards a country’s wealth I performed a multiple linear regression on 27 European Union countries and the findings revealed a significant correlation between circular economy adaptation and the contribution to wealth in the countries. The findings implicate how policy makers could adopt a circular economy and achieve a sustainable economy.</em></p> Hauzaan Almayzhar Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2326 Tue, 12 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 HOW EFFECTIVE IS THE IMPLEMENTATION OF A CIRCULAR ECONOMY IN THE EUROPEAN UNION (27) TOWARDS THE CLIMATE CHANGE RATE? : A PREVALENCE ANALYSIS WITH EUROSTAT DATA https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2327 <p><em>Circular economy, a sustainable approach to resource management, is gaining attention amid escalating climate change concerns from the rise of greenhouse gas emissions. The problem lies in the true impact of using a circular economy in building climate resilience. In this study, I analyze Eurostat data from 27 European Union countries using multivariate regression statistics to unveil the relationship between circular economy practices and greenhouse gas emissions. Employing a robust methodological framework, my findings reveal a significant correlation between circular economy adoption and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These insights hold implications for policymakers, advocating for the integration of circular economy strategies to enhance climate resilience and shape effective climate policies for European Union policymakers.</em></p> Varelino Setya Navyando Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2327 Tue, 12 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 AN ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF INSTITUTIONAL DISTANCE ON THE LEVEL OF CONTROL OF MULTINATIONALS IN THE INDONESIAN MEDIUM-HIGH AND HIGH TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2328 <p><em>Multinational corporations (MNCs) significantly contribute to globalizing research and development, particularly in emerging economies like Indonesia. As Indonesia aims to achieve the "Making Indonesia 4.0" vision, attracting foreign investment to bolster its medium-high and high technology industry becomes crucial. This study conducts an exploration within institutional theory concerning the influence of 'distance' measures on the level of control exerted by MNCs in a host country. Focusing on Indonesia's medium-high and high technology industry, the research investigates the relationships between formal and informal institutional distances and MNCs' strategic control decisions. Statistical analyses support the hypotheses, affirming the significance of both formal and informal institutional distance in shaping MNCs' inclination toward majority stake deals in the targeted industry. The findings contribute to a nuanced understanding of MNCs' strategic decision-making in an industry specific context. Which necessitates MNCs to balance managing partnerships to reduce strategic control in a formally distant host country, while at the same time maintaining a strong grip on technology-intensive activities to mitigate risks tied to reduce interdependence in an informally distant host country.</em></p> Rio Pramuditya Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2328 Tue, 12 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPACT OF CSR INCIDENTS ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDITEX IN THE NETHERLANDS AND INDONESIA https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2329 <p><em>This study explores the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) incidents&nbsp; and customer loyalty, focusing on a comparative analysis of Inditex's operations in the Netherlands and Indonesia. Investigating the impact of CSR incidents on customer loyalty is crucial in understanding consumer behavior in diverse cultural contexts. Through a comprehensive examination of Inditex's CSR practices and incidents, this study aims to discern the varying degrees of influence on customer loyalty in these two distinct markets. This research considers the moderating effect of the customer country of residence between Indonesia and the Netherlands and the relationship between CSR incidents and customer loyalty is mediated by the trust in the company’s reputation. This research contributes to the broader understanding of the global implications of CSR strategies on customer relations, offering practical implications for businesses navigating diverse markets</em>.</p> Nashita Zaafira Ramadhani Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2329 Tue, 12 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 REPLACING ENDORSERS WITH ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE: INNOVATION IN THE ADVERTISING WORLD https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2330 <p>At one time, we thought that artificial intelligence was just fantasy. However, we did not imagine that this dream would become a reality in the 21st century and would have such an impact on our day-to-day lives. Nowadays, AI has made many difficult tasks in our daily lives easier, and work time has also decreased. Currently, Artificial Intelligence is being used in various sectors. But, after witnessing the capability, it is clear that AI will revolutionize the business world. Advertising is a significant part of the business sector. AI is expected to emerge as a game changer, especially in advertising. New entrepreneurs can market and advertise their products at relatively low cost. With AI, they can hire prominent endorser’s "personality" to advertise at a reasonable cost, which is currently out of imagination for new entrepreneurs. AI is going to emerge as a generational advancement for the business and advertising world around the globe. If advertisers develop an AI that can learn the personality of an individual and can ethically use the character to create ads or a live video, the expense of marketing will significantly decline. Statistical tools will be used to analyze the quantitative data, and thematic examination will be applied to dissect the qualitative data. Try to fill the gap and overcome the problem using primary and secondary data. Find the best ways to reduce the risk factors and expand economic growth.</p> Sadia Binte Azad Sristy, Noor Musanna Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2330 Mon, 11 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 PRIVATE EQUITY FUND SELECTION - A MACHINE LEARNING APPROACH https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2361 <p><em>The following aims to train a range of supervised machine learning models to predict the probability of a private equity (PE) fund exceeding a public market equivalent (PME) measure of 1 based on the information the PE investor would have at the time of fundraising. Past literature has studied a range of factors that appear to drive the performance of PE funds such as targeted fund size, management experience, fund specialization level, state of the industry, and the overall economy. The article investigates the predictive power of these factors. The models are based on a sample of 1,233 Buyout (BO) funds and 689 are Venture Capital (VC) funds sourced from Preqin. The results suggest some degree of predictability in VC funds with the top performing models reaching an out of sample accuracy score of 75% vs a base rate of 70%. For BO funds, the results are less promising with the top models only reaching an out of sample accuracy score of 60%, while failing to surpass the base rate of 61%. Overall, complex machine learning models, such as boosted decision tree-based algorithms and feedforward neural networks, fail to consistently outperform simpler models in both fund categories, which can be attributed to the limited sample size. Many macroeconomic and fund-specific in the variables analysis look to be valuable performance indicators for both the categories of funds. The impact is more profound and statistically significant for VC funds, especially in the case of macroeconomic factors</em>.</p> Christopher Rosenqvist Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2361 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 UNDERSTANDING BANK DIVESTMENT IN FOSSIL FUELS. AN APPROACH FROM VAR AND MONTE CARLO SIMULATION https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2362 <p><em>The energy transition is one of the most relevant priorities in the context of the current production and consumption system. Finance, through Sustainable Finance, must start redirecting money flows towards projects with less impact on the environment. Through portfolio construction, this paper conducts an analysis based on Monte Carlo Simulation and Value at Risk. Based on a sample of 40 international banks, distributed by those that invest more in fossil fuels vs. those that invest less, the main objective of this work is to know the financial viability of the different portfolios considering their return and risk. The results show that the banks that are divesting more in fossil fuels have a lower return and a higher risk compared to those banks that continue to invest in fossil fuels. According to the Monte Carlo Simulation, there is also a better performance of those banks that continue to have a strong fossil fuels investment policy. According to these results, it seems that stronger restrictions should be imposed on fossil fuels investment in order for the major banks to become profitable by investing in projects with lower environmental impact. An in-depth analysis of the policy and legal implications of this performance is a line that can be addressed in the future</em>.</p> Arturo García-Martínez, Antonio García-Amate Copyright (c) 2024 Arturo García-Martínez, Antonio García-Amate https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2362 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DYNAMIC INTERRELATION BETWEEN STOCK MARKET INDEX, EXCHANGE RATE, T-BILLS AND POLICY RATE: THE CASE OF EGYPT 2010-2020 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2363 <p><em>A robust securities market is the engine of a country's economy. Undoubtedly, the stability and strength of a country's financial intermediaries and secondary market systems determine its overall economic growth. Since 2009, when the secondary market and Egypt’s EGX 30 stock index were established, the Egyptian economy has been on a trajectory of growth. However, Egypt's economy has been facing various economic and financial challenges in recent years because of political instability and social unrest, starting with the 2011 political revolution and the global external shocks such as the Corona pandemic, which negatively impacted its foreign capital inflows from the hard currency. Which made it essential and critical to ask for financial assistance from international institutions and the global financial market to maintain the country's economic wellbeing. That was linked to economic structural reform-backed loan programs and agreements with the IMF and the World Bank. Since then, it is assumed that Egypt’s economy is moving towards more cointegration with the global economy, especially after the IMF-backed loan program and the economic reforms that took place since the end of 2016 with the currency flotation regime in November 2016. Since then, Egypt’s economic stance, stock market, and foreign exchange rate turned out to be more reflective and vulnerable to the external shocks that are taking place. And with the association of the IMF loan program, the financial capital market via foreign capital inflows in the foreign portfolio investments, has played a main role in influencing the currency performance through Egypt’s equity and debt markets, which are directly and indirectly influenced by Egypt’s Central Bank monetary policy decisions. This paper helps to understand the stock, foreign exchange markets in Egypt and the impact of the government’s monetary policy on the financial market. It aims at identifying the determinants of both markets, investigates the relationship between macroeconomic variables on Egypt’s EGX30 all-share stock index and Egypt’s FX rate. The macroeconomic interrelations are examined including Egypt’s lending interest rate and the 91-day Treasury bill (T-bill) rate. By applying the cointegration model and the VECM model to test the short-run and long-run relationships between the noted variables. The findings indicated a long-run relationship between Egypt's stock market index, lending rates, and T-bills over the period from 2010 until 2016, before the currency flotation regime.</em></p> Yara El Kahky Copyright (c) 2024 Yara El Kahky https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2363 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 COPYRIGHT ISSUE IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE APPLICATIONS OF SMART PRODUCTION AND AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2364 <p><strong><em>Background:</em></strong><em> In recent years, the use of artificial intelligence in the field of production and design has increased. As a result, in smart production and autonomous systems, the concepts of copyright and rights ownership on the works produced have become increasingly complex. In addition, there is no sufficient legal regulation regarding the rights of the software side of the system, the content providers and the commercial parties with whom they have agreements, in the productions made by autonomous systems through artificial intelligence software. In addition to the ownership of the work, the copyright of the elements in the content of the work and those who produce these elements also emerge as an important problem in productions made with artificial intelligence. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Purpose of Study:</em></strong><em> In this study, it is aimed to examine the copyright issue in artificial intelligence applications of smart production and autonomous systems. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Sources of Evidence:</em></strong><em> In the research, a literature review was conducted and semiotic analysis and content analysis were conducted based on academic studies. According to the results obtained, analyzes were made regarding the deficiencies in copyright and the main problems arising from field applications in smart production and autonomous systems made through artificial intelligence. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Main Argument:</em></strong><em> The main argument of the research is that copyright is an important problem in both the short and long term in smart production and autonomous systems produced through artificial intelligence. </em></p> <p><strong><em>Conclusions:</em></strong><em> Although DSM Directive 2019/790/EU, which was issued in 2016 and came into force in 2019, regulates digital copyrights, there are serious deficiencies regarding the ownership of the system or work and the legal regulations regarding smart productions and autonomous systems produced through artificial intelligence. While DSM Directive 2019/790/EU targets a uniform digital market, the copyright issue in artificial intelligence applications shows that this regulation is also inadequate. Regarding the AI Act, there is not yet sufficient regulation or implementation data regarding copyrights. The United States Copyright Office published in 2023 points out similar deficiencies in artificial intelligence and copyrights. Existing copyright regulations are insufficient today, especially for smart products produced by autonomous systems. One of the most important sources of the problem is that the work, its ownership, the types of work, and the commercial and moral values of the work are not fully defined. For a solution, comprehensive and advanced studies are needed regarding the copyrights of artificial intelligence.</em></p> Gulde Alparslan Copyright (c) 2024 Gulde Alparslan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2364 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 INVESTIGATING THE INFLUENCE OF AUTHORITARIAN LEADERSHIP AND SUPERVISOR SATISFACTION ON TURNOVER INTENTION: THE MODERATING ROLE OF EMPLOYEE UPBRINGING https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2366 <p><em>Authoritarian leadership is prevalent in the Asian region, and previous research has found a positive correlation between authoritarian leadership and employees' intention to leave their jobs. However, there are employees in the workplace who can adapt to such supervisors. Therefore, we approach this study from the perspective of "fit theory" to explore whether employees with authoritarian family upbringing can match with authoritarian leadership. This study aims to investigate the impact of authoritarian leadership on employees' intention to leave, with supervisor satisfaction as the mediator and employees' authoritarian family upbringing as the moderator. A total of 232 valid questionnaires were collected in this study. The results revealed that the level of authoritarian family upbringing among employees has a moderating effect on the relationship between authoritarian leadership and supervisor satisfaction.</em></p> Hsiung, Ting En, Chong, Tong Ming, Tan, Zhi Lin, Chen, Po Hung Copyright (c) 2024 Hsiung, Ting En, Chong, Tong Ming, Tan, Zhi Lin, Chen, Po Hung https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2366 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 POLYGAMY IN FOCUS: A DISCOURSE ON SOCIETAL NORMS, RIGHTS, AND PRACTICAL CHALLENGES https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2367 <p><em>This article delves into the multifaceted perspectives on polygamy, specifically focusing on why a woman might opt to become a co-wife. The study, conducted in a private Facebook group for women who are part of or interested in polygamous relationships, unveils that societal norms, religious convictions, and individual situations greatly shape the views on polygamy. Despite certain muslim feminist groups advocating for the restriction of polygamy to specific scenarios, both men and women have their unique interpretations and applications of the principle, often extending beyond the confines of the Qur'anic context. However, these theories don't fully encompass the practical responsibilities and potential hurdles tied to polygamy. The study also exposed that polygamy, commonly perceived from a male-centric viewpoint, could also be interpreted as a woman's right, particularly when she is the instigator of the marriage. In summary, the research provides both theoretical insights and pragmatic implications, allowing us to perceive polygamy not just as a male prerogative but also as a potential social support structure for women.</em></p> Gintarė Sereikaitė Motiejūnė Copyright (c) 2024 Gintarė Sereikaitė Motiejūnė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2367 Thu, 29 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ASYMMETRIC CARRIERS: SHIPPING TO HETEROGENEOUS CUSTOMERS UNDER PERSONALIZED PRICING https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2372 <p>Problem definition: <em>We study two asymmetric information carriers that</em><em> adopt personalized pricing to provide transportation services to end-market consumers. Consumers are heterogeneous in their sensitivity to the quality of the product arriving at their destination. <br>Academic/practical relevance: Consumer dissatisfaction with personalized pricing and product quality may cause them to turn to competitors to satisfy their needs. Competition among carriers and information sharing strategies have the potential to transform carriers’ decisions and thus retain consumers. <br>Methodology: We develop a two-period game model to capture carriers’ freight rates (personalized and non-personalized pricing) and information sharing decisions. <br>Results: We find that market competition and quality-sensitivity information sharing do not affect the incumbent carrier’s personalized pricing but moderate the extent of it by the entrant carrier. In equilibrium, the high-type incumbent carrier can benefit from information sharing, but the high-type entrant carrier may suffer. We also find that a more competitive market may increase the incumbent carrier’s total profit and may decrease the total profit of the entrant carrier. <br>Managerial implications: Our research provides guidance on carriers’ personalized pricing and whether a new entrant should strive to become the market leader. At the same time, our research also provides guidance on whether the informed carrier should share its strategic information</em>.</p> Xie Faqi Copyright (c) 2024 Xie Faqi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2372 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPACT OF RISK MANAGEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2373 <p><em>This study delves into the integral role of risk management in optimizing the efficiency of construction project implementation by identifying and categorizing potential risks while emphasizing proactive risk management strategies. The research underscores the vulnerability of construction projects to diverse risks and highlights the prevailing issue of insufficient emphasis on risk management practices in the field. Notably, the findings indicate a substantial correlation between early risk identification and heightened project efficiency, showcasing that project employing proactive strategies experience fewer disruptions and greater adaptability to unforeseen challenges. Furthermore, construction projects implementing robust risk management practices demonstrate noteworthy reductions in delays and cost overruns, contributing to streamlined timelines and adherence to budget constraints. The study recommends prioritizing the adoption of proactive risk management practices, focusing on early identification and mitigation, and advocates for investment in training programs to enhance stakeholders' risk management knowledge and skills. Additionally, it suggests leveraging technological solutions, such as predictive analytics and simulation models, for more accurate and dynamic risk assessments, facilitating informed decision-making in construction project management.</em></p> <p><em>The comparative analysis of risk management approaches empowers informed and appropriate decision-making. This reduces the disruption of and enhances financial outcomes. These findings signify a paradigm shift in project management in construction, advocating for a culture of effective and proactive risk management. It can revolutionize industry practices, increase predictability, and elevate the project's success. Implementing recommended strategies, inculcating adaptability cultivation, clear communication, and theoretical framework, and embracing complexity promises to enhance risk management effectively, guiding the instruction industry toward continuous improvement and innovation.</em></p> Hamad Saleh Mofleh Alshehhi Copyright (c) 2024 Hamad Saleh Mofleh Alshehhi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2373 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPACT OF RISK MANAGEMENT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2311 <p><em>This research navigates the intricate landscape of the risk management in the construction industry. This paper also illuminates its profound influence on the success of the project. Diverse risk mitigation strategies have been investigated based on the impact of the same in the critical project metrics, such as adherence schedule, quality benchmark, and control of the cist; all this combined forms the foundation of this research. The objective of this research revolves around evaluating the correlation of the project's outcomes with the identification of risk. This quantifies the mitigation strategies' measurable impacts and compares their effectiveness in the stakeholders' satisfaction and the budget's control. With the empirical insights, this study aims to address the critical gap in understanding the direct link of risk management with the project's success. It equips the industry professional with evidence-based approaches to optimize risk practices, fostering resource allocation and resilience.</em></p> <p><em>The comparative analysis of risk management approaches empowers informed and appropriate decision-making. This reduces the disruption of and enhances financial outcomes. These findings signify a paradigm shift in project management in construction, advocating for a culture of effective and proactive risk management. It can revolutionize industry practices, increase predictability, and elevate the project's success. Implementing recommended strategies, inculcating adaptability cultivation, clear communication, and theoretical framework, and embracing complexity promises to enhance risk management effectively, guiding the instruction industry toward continuous improvement and innovation</em></p> Hamad Saleh Mofleh Alshehhi Copyright (c) 2024 Hamad Saleh Mofleh Alshehhi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2311 Wed, 31 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BUSINESS STRATEGY, ACCOUNTING CONSERVATISM, TAX AGGRESSIVENESS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2374 <p><em>Different from literature studying the bi-variable relation between business strategy and accounting conservatism as well as tax aggressiveness, this research provides original ideas exploring the relation among business strategy and accounting conservatism through tax aggressiveness. Using the Taiwan data including high-technology and traditional industries, our results indicate that first, prospector companies are more tax aggressive, and are more accounting conservative than defender ones. Secondly, the positive effect of business strategy on accounting conservatism holds through increasing tax aggressiveness (reducing tax payment), implying prospector companies with more tax aggressiveness are more accounting conservatism than defender ones with less tax aggressiveness. Thirdly, the positive effect of strategy on conservatism through increasing tax aggressiveness in high-tech firms is stronger than that in traditional ones. This implies that compared to traditional firms, high-technology firms can more strengthen this positive effect through tax aggressiveness. Fourthly, this paper highlights the role of tax aggressiveness in driving association between business strategy and conservative accounting. Finally, our results are analogous to Higgins et al. (2015) and Hsieh et al. (2019)’s findings of U.S. sample companies, implying that some characteristics of Taiwan companies (e.g., access to capital market, tax deductibility of investment in R&amp;D) appear to be similar to particularities of U.S. firms. This paper provides the evidence on a developing country (Taiwan) for investors and portfolio managers.</em></p> Chen Yin Kuo Copyright (c) 2024 Chen Yin Kuo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2374 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 WORK LIFE BALANCE AS MEDIATOR BETWEEN FINANCIAL WELL-BEING AND TURNOVER INTENTION: MODERATED BY WORK SECTOR OF EMPLOYEES IN CENTRAL LUZON, PHILIPPINES https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2375 <p><em>The mediating role of work life balance on the relationship between financial well-being and turnover intention was investigated in this study. Moreover, the possible moderation of work sector was explored. The respondents include the millennial workforce from private and public organizations in Central Luzon, Philippines. The research utilized quantitative approach to assess the relationships between the variables. To quantify the responses, adopted instrument was used and distributed to respondents. The respondents were chosen using purposive sampling design. Data gathered were treated using Partial least square – structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) through WarpPls 8.0 software. The findings revealed that significant effects were observed on the following: financial well-being on work life balance; work life balance on turnover intention; and financial well-being on turnover intention. Moreover, work life balance was found to partially mediate between financial well-being and turnover intention. However, the moderating effect of work sector on the relationships of the variables was found to be not statistically significant. Given the finding of the study, conclusions were drawn and recommendations were provided to address the issues. </em></p> Juris C. Ponio Copyright (c) 2024 Juris C. Ponio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2375 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DATA-DRIVEN CAPACITY MANAGEMENT AND REVENUE MAXIMIZATION OF RIDE-HAILING SERVICE WITH PRESCRIPTIVE ANALYTICS AND DEEP LEARNING https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2376 <p><em>This paper studies capacity management of ride-hailing service with unstable passenger demand. In existing parametric approaches in the literature, normally a two-stage prediction-then-optimization (PTO) paradigm is used to implement demand prediction, capacity and revenue optimization sequentially, which generally achieves suboptimal performance due to the information loss in demand prediction. To attain optimality, in this study, we integrate these two stages into a prediction &amp; optimization (P&amp;O) paradigm considering both Cobb-Douglas matching function and perfect matching function, and formulate a weighted sample average approximation (WSAA) approach embedded with k-nearest neighbors, kernel regression and decision tree, as well as an innovative deep learning approach that couples decomposition, convolution, and attention together. The WSAA approach was proven to be asymptotically optimal when a sufficient number of samples are collected, while the deep learning approach based on P&amp;O paradigm demonstrated superior performance in capacity management. Finally, as an extension, we combine WSAA and deep learning approaches to potentially achieve further improvement on optimality.</em></p> Jin Kun Copyright (c) 2024 Jin Kun https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2376 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CONSTRUCT GUARD https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2378 <p><em>Construction sites still have safety issues, which has led to the creation of cutting-edge. The Proposed Solution is Smart wearable bands and helmets equipped with a variety of sensors for tracking employee health and safety. The technology, which is supported by a connected wearable belt, continuously tracks worker location and health parameters. An advanced accelerometer detects workers' standing positions, triggering instant notifications to contractors in the event of dizziness. A Spo2 sensor enhances total health surveillance by monitoring oxygen and pulse rates in addition to the foregoing. This proposed system transcends traditional safety protocols, presenting a dynamic and proactive approach to worker well-being.&nbsp; By leveraging advanced sensor technologies and location-based intelligence, our smart wearables provide real-time health insights and prompt alerts during health compromises or accidents</em>.</p> Priyanka R Copyright (c) 2024 Priyanka R https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2378 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE NATIONALITY OF THE ARBITRAL SENTENCE IN INTERNATIONAL ARBITRATION https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2379 <p><em>In the case of international disputes resolved by means of arbitration, the cross-border effects of the awards are essential for the parties. At first glance, these awards are assimilated to the national court judgements of the state where they were pronounced and are considered foreign court judgements in any other state. Nevertheless, in some cases, the links between the arbitral procedures and the place of pronouncement of the awards are weak or even non-existent, which raises serios doubts over the ability of this specific place to determine the nationality of the arbitral award. </em></p> <p><em>The described circumstance is the premise of the present scientific approach, which aims to deepen the analysis of the criteria for determining the nationality of an arbitral award (by a Romanian court), with implications on its cross-border effects, as well as on the procedures that could lead to its dissolution.</em></p> <p><em>From a methodological point of view, the research aims, successively, to inventory the applicable legal instruments, to delineate the solutions offered by them, in order to, finally, by overlapping them, provide a comprehensive theory on the determination of the nationality of an arbitral award.</em></p> Dr. Șerban-Alexandru Stănescu, Drd. Ana-Maria Dimofte Copyright (c) 2024 Dr. Șerban-Alexandru Stănescu, Drd. Ana-Maria Dimofte https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2379 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 HARMONIZING ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION: DECOUPLING POLLUTION FROM PROSPERITY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2380 <p><em>Environmental pollution and climate change effects being experienced by present global populations can be attributed to economic growth. With the increase in industrialization, the generation of waste without proper treatment and disposal has resulted in polluted air that risks the health of the population. It has also resulted in increased global earth temperatures, which have in turn affected the agricultural productivity of the earth, a primary source of livelihood for human populations. Despite these great consequences, there can be a harmonious existence of economic growth and reduced environmental pollution through decoupling. Government efforts are critical in the implementation of decoupling efforts, with their commitments expressed through policies and legislation.</em></p> Zihang Huang 1 Copyright (c) 2024 Zihang Huang 1 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2380 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 TOURISM AS A TOOL FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: IDENTIFICATION OF DETERMINING FACTORS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2381 <p><em>Currently, a significant number of countries are betting on tourism as an economic activity on which to base their economic development, given that most international organizations recognize that tourism can become a tool for economic development, especially in less developed countries. However, on the part of the scientific literature there is no defined current on the capacity of tourism to become an instrument with which to improve the living conditions of the population residing in receiving countries. In this sense, in the scientific literature there are numerous investigations that have dealt with analysing the relationship between tourism and economic growth, a large part of these works coinciding that there is a causal relationship between both variables, but the same does not happen when the relationship between tourism and economic development. Among works that have analysed this relationship, there is no uniform current on the relationships that exist between tourism and economic development, being different the variables that have been used in these works to measure tourism and economic development, and being applied in different areas of analysis. Indeed, since the appearance of the first works that have analysed the relationship between tourism and economic development, approximately ten years ago, a large number of investigations have emerged on this relationship, for which it is interesting to carry out an evaluation of the main models econometrics that have been used, as well as the main empirical findings that have been reached in this work. In this context, this work highlights a comprehensive review of a large number of peer-reviewed articles that analyse the relationship between tourism and economic development, providing a general description of the theoretical framework that supports the relationship between these two variables, as well as the main results that have been obtained in these works, which will allow establishing the position of the scientific literature regarding the capacity of tourism as an instrument of economic development</em>. <em>This work, therefore, contributes to the scientific literature by answering the question: what is the relationship between tourism and economic development?</em></p> Pablo Juan Cárdenas-García Copyright (c) 2024 Pablo Juan Cárdenas-García https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2381 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 HOW NON-CURRICULAR ARTS ARE USED TO STRENGTHEN THE SOCIAL STATUS OF ENGINEERS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2382 <p><em>The paper discusses the concept of using non-curricular arts to strengthen the social status of engineers by expanding skillset and perception, building bridges, and connections. While there's no definitive answer of how non-curricular arts are used to strengthen the social status of engineers, the study presents some artistic ways of engagement that can impact engineers' social standing by demonstrating creativity and innovation, communication and storytelling, collaboration, and empathy. The study shows that the impact of non-curricular arts on engineers' social status depends on individual engagement, societal context, and how the artistic pursuit is perceived. While not a guaranteed formula, actively engaging in diverse artistic mediums can certainly contribute to a more well-rounded, respected, and connected image of engineers within society. Finally, the paper presents a comprehensive overview of how non-curricular arts can potentially influence the social status of engineers</em></p> Mohammed Algarni Copyright (c) 2024 Mohammed Algarni https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2382 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE USE OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECTS AS A TOOL AFFECTING THE SECURITY AND STABILITY OF SOCIETY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2383 <p><em>Socio-economic aspects are nowadays one of the most important factors for the safety and stability of society. According to them, the possibility of the emergence of pathogenic anomalies threatening the stability of society can be predicted. Based on this fact, it is possible to implement preliminary measures to prevent the occurrence of extraordinary events well in time´s advance. The given theory can be demonstrated on the models of E.W. Burgess concentric zonal structure of the city and on Harris &amp; Ullman multi-core model of the city. Thanks to knowledge from sociology and safety engineering we can to present, how the security and stability of society in a given location can be moved to a higher level, if we know very wel socio-economic aspects of society.</em></p> Jozef Surkovsky Copyright (c) 2024 Jozef Surkovsky https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2383 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 WOMEN AND NATURE: ECOPSYCOCHOLOGICAL FILM READING https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2416 <p><em>Nature-based studies yielded significant results concerning the psychological benefits of nature exposure. As such, ecopsychology is concerned with the relation human beings have with the surrounding environment. Using a multimodal approach comprising textual film analysis and ecopsychology, this work examines natural elements in the films Papicha (2019) and Clair Obscur (2016) and the psychological effects ensuing a nature experience. Papicha (2019) directed by Mounia Meddour tells the story of Nejdma who struggles to achieve her dream as a fashion designer in a demanding society. Likewise, Chenaz and Elmas in Clair Obscur (2016) defy society in their way to regain their independent autonomous selves. Although from two different cinematic traditions, the former Algerian and the latter Turkish, the films provide an audio-visual experience that traces the main characters’ state of mind before and post nature exposure and their journeys towards self-discovery and empowerment. The emphasis on solely female protagonists, in addition to nature, promotes feminist ecopsychological thinking. It provides an opportunity to explore feminist perspectives by highlighting the connection between women and nature portrayed through these female protagonists' experiences</em>.</p> Rym Derdous Copyright (c) 2024 Rym Derdous https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2416 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 AN INVESTIGATION OF THE FLUCTUATION IN LANGUAGE LEARNING MOTIVATION OVER TIME: A QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2417 <p><em>In SLA, the variation of motivation when learning a language is a significant research area (Kikuchi, 2015). It has been established that motivation fluctuates, and that high and low levels of motivation alternate during language learning cycles (Albalawi &amp; Al-Hoorie, 2021; Kikuchi, 2015, 2019). This research aims to comprehend and investigate the complexity of motivation fluctuation across language learning experiences which involves demotivation and remotivation.</em> <em>It focuses on the language learning motivation fluctuations of female students who studied general English in Saudi Arabia for more than six years at the school level up until their first year of university at the age of nineteen. It considers the dynamic and changing nature of motivation and its context-specific nature. It explores motivation fluctuation with broad perspective considering typical and atypical, academic, and non-academic as well as internal and external factors that lead to language learners’ demotivation in English language learning and the demotivation process. It also explores how language learners get remotivated after experiencing demotivation in language learning, including factors, opportunities, and challenges.&nbsp;To help understand this transient nature and process, this research adopts a qualitive design and will utilize thick data captured through narrative inquiry. It aims to capture language learners’ motivation fluctuation, their loss of that motivation, as well as their regaining of it.&nbsp; The term </em><em>"language learner" describes a person who is consciously involved in the process of acquiring, developing, or improving their skill in one or more languages that can be considered foreign or second languages and may take place in formal settings like universities and institutions or through independent study utilizing alternative resources ​(Littlewood, 1984)​.</em></p> Mona Alzahrani Copyright (c) 2024 Mona Alzahrani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2417 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 BASIC ANXIETY IN JANE AUSTEN’S PRIDE AND PREJUDICE AND EMMA https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2435 <p><em>This paper examines Jane Austen’s representation of the heroines of Pride and Prejudice and Emma, using Karen Horney’s psychosocial theory of basic anxiety that emphasizes the role of childhood experiences and the impact of socialization on an individual’s psychological development. Firstly, the examination shows certain episodes in the heroines’ early experiences that shape their adult identity and self-knowledge. The analysis reveals that those heroines are highly affected by their parents or chaperones, who themselves may suffer from neurotic problems that impede their ability to properly provide care and support for their children. Moreover, this research delves into how social norms and expectations affect the heroines’ self-image and worldview</em><em>. </em></p> Hana Djelloul Copyright (c) 2024 Hana Djelloul https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2435 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 WHY STAY? SAUDI WOMEN’S ADAPTIONS TO VIOLENCE https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2420 <p><em>The study investigates the reasons why women continue to live with an abusive husband and examines the relationship between their reasons and a number of variables that support one’s ability to cope with spousal violence. These variables include employment status, educational level, number of children, marriage duration, the social status of the wife's family and the number of violent incidents. A demographic survey and a spousal violence adaption scale were administered to a sample of 114 abused wives. The results revealed that all of the variables and several of the dimensions represented by the violence adaption scale affected the women’s decisions. The impact of these variables was more obvious among nonworking wives and the lesser educated, women with a greater number of children, those who had been married longer, those who senatal families had a low social status, and those who were subjected to violence more frequently. Keywords: adaptation to violence, marital violence, Saudi Arabia, spousal violence, violence against women in Saudi Arabia, why women stay in violent relationships.</em></p> Seham Alazab Copyright (c) 2024 Seham Alazab https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2420 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 RESEARCH ON AESTHETIC COGNITION, FLOW EXPERIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE IN VIRTUAL CULTURAL ACTIVITIES https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2421 <p><em>This research explores the integration of aesthetic experience and technology acceptance in virtual cultural activities. Aimed at enhancing user engagement, the study utilizes a structured questionnaire to evaluate participants' aesthetic cognition, flow experiences, and technology acceptance. Methods include data collection from virtual cultural activities and subsequent analytical comparisons. Results indicate a preference for immersive and user-friendly technological interfaces, highlighting the significance of aesthetic cognition in cultural activities' success. The study suggests that improving interactive features could significantly enhance participation in virtual cultural settings.</em></p> Hui-Yun Yen Copyright (c) 2024 Hui-Yun Yen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2421 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF TESTING LABORATORY EMPLOYEES OF XYZ CENTER BASED ON THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH MENTAL WORKLOAD https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2422 <p><em>Balai XYZ is one of the government agencies engaged in services, one of which is material testing. Based on performance value data, about 30% of technicians have less good value. The suspected factor is the pressure in work so that the mental workload increases. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the mental workload using Subjective Workload Dominance method. The measurement results show that many technicians have a heavy mental workload, especially on D and F. In addition, there is a significant negative relationship between workload and performance value. Proposed performance improvements include SOP improvements for D and F assignments, rejuvenation of test kits and assistive devices, as well as improvements to machine tool work instructions.</em></p> Fina Za'imah Copyright (c) 2024 Fina Za'imah https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2422 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ASSESSING COMPARABILITY IN SUSTAINABILITY REPORTS: A MULTI-LEVEL ANALYSIS IN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY OF A DEVELOPING ECONOMY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2437 <p><strong><em>Purpose - </em></strong><em>The usefulness of sustainability reports in meeting the information needs of stakeholders is questionable due to information asymmetry resulting from the proliferation of sustainability reporting frameworks. </em><em>Despite this, arguments have surfaced that intra-industry firms, due to shared characteristics, might achieve a semblance of comparability. This study endeavors to analyse the comparability of sustainability information of organisations in the oil and gas industry of a developing economy.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Design/methodology/approach -</em></strong><em> To achieve the study purpose, a content analysis of sustainability information was performed by identifying the framework, structure, and content used to disclose sustainability information, using GRI reporting standards as a reference for comparability.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Findings - </em></strong><em>The analysis revealed that at a framework level, most organisations do not use any international sustainability reporting frameworks, opting for discretion. </em><em>Regarding structural aspects, sustainability information lacks comparability owing to disparate sections. At a content level, the economic indicators have the highest compliance than social and environmental indicators, highlighting inconsistent reporting to different groups of stakeholders.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Originality – </em></strong><em>The novelty of this research lies in its comprehensive exploration of comparability of sustainability reports across multiple levels with specific emphasis on the environmentally sensitive oil and gas industry within the framework of a developing economy.</em></p> Hania Rehman Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2437 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE COUNTRY NAME AND POLITICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF AFGHANISTAN https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2439 <p><em>Looking back at the history of regime changes in Afghanistan, Afghanistan's political reconstruction after political instability is often accompanied by renaming the country. This phenomenon reflects the close connection between political reconstruction and the name of the country. A hypothesis was proposed to explain this phenomenon: The renaming of the country is a microcosm of Afghanistan's political reconstruction process. By analyzing the composition of the country's name, we can generally understand the country's political reconstruction process. The analysis of the country's name helps to explain the results of the political reconstruction of Afghanistan in history and to make a reasonable prediction of the results of the ongoing political reconstruction. To test this hypothesis, this paper made a historical analysis of the period of the Afghan People's Democratic Party in power and the US-backed bourgeois-democratic political period. It reviewed the composition of the country's name and the goals and results of political reconstruction in these two historical periods. Finally, this paper, in light of the elements in the name of “The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan”, envisioned the current Taliban-led political reconstruction in Afghanistan.</em></p> Huang Peitao Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2439 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 FROM REJECTION TO CONFRONTATION: A STUDY ON THE ONTOLOGICAL SECURITY PERSPECTIVE OF POLAND’S RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2440 <p><em>I</em><em>n the field of international security studies, attention to ontological security issues has become a focal point. Ontological security at the national level manifests as the dynamic harmony between “national super-ego” and “national Id”, representing a common product in the subject relations. Ontological security crisis is the result of the failure of “national ego” regulation. Positioned in the geopolitical periphery, Poland, over millennia, has developed a distinct “national super-ego” and a strong sense of identity. However, throughout its history, Poland has repeatedly faced ontological security challenges from Russia. For Poland, Russia has transformed from being the “other” to the “excluded”, ultimately becoming the “adversary” in Poland's ontological security. Since the “post-Cold War” era, Poland has endeavored to reshape its ontological security through internal and external measures. Ontological security provides a novel perspective for international relations research.</em></p> Ke Yan Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2440 Mon, 06 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE PERCEPTION AND THE ORIGINS OF THE U. S. SOUTH CHINA SEA POLICY DURING THE EVENTS HAPPENED IN THE REGION BEFORE THE COLDWAR https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2441 <p><em>The South China Sea policy of the United States after World War II was formed by the United States’ perception of the three events in the South China Sea before the Cold War. After events such as France’s occupation of the nine small islands in the South China Sea, Japan’s occupation of the South China Sea, and the struggle against Japan during the Pacific War, the United States has continuously deepened its understanding of the South China Sea and increasingly valued its important value. With Japan's gradual retreat in the later stages of World War II, the United States gradually gained control of the South China Sea and took a dominant position in the South China Sea dispute. With the continuous deepening of the United States' understanding of the South China Sea and the changes in its identity, status, and interests in the South China Sea region, the U.S. South China Sea policy has gradually taken shape.</em></p> Liu Jinbo Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2441 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE OBSTRUCTION OF SEA POWER, THE RECOVER OF LAND POWER AND THE POSSIBILITY OF “INTERCONNECT POWER” https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2442 <p><em>Maritime versus land transportation, or the race between sea power and land power, is a topic that political scientists have been passionately discussing for centuries. In recent decades, sea power has undoubtedly prevailed. However, With the changes in the international political and economic situation and the frequent occurrence of wars and accidents (for example, the conflict in the Bab-el-Mandeb Strait and the backlog of goods in ports due to the epidemic), maritime transportation has been restricted at the present time. Coupled with the development and application of new technologies (examples include distributed photovoltaics, high-speed rail, ultra-high-voltage transmission technology and thorium-based nuclear power plants) and the rise of new economies, the rise of land power has become a new trend. In other words, “circulating power”, which combines sea power and land power, provides a new development perspective for human society. The interconnectedness of the world will beyond the “national center” perspective, bring about the well-being of mankind, and convert the struggle for power into economic cooperation and prosperity.<br><br></em></p> Pan Xianming Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2442 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE DECAY OF THE RUSSIA-EU ENERGY DIALOGUE MECHANISM FROM A ROLE PERSPECTIVE https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2445 <p><em>The energy issue is at the core of the interaction between Russia and Europe. This paper, based on the perspective of role theory, systematically reviews the evolution of the Russia-Europe energy dialogue mechanism in the post-Cold War era. It combines role positioning and role expectations as two core variables to analyze the influencing factors of the Russia-Europe energy dialogue mechanism. Therefore, six influencing factors are summarized, including political culture, energy strategy, and energy groups related to role positioning, as well as historical traditions, international crises, and energy revolutions related to role expectations. The paper argues that the evolution of the Russia-Europe energy dialogue mechanism exhibits three characteristics: firstly, consistency with Russia-Europe relations; secondly, idealism in role expectations formed due to political cultural differences; and thirdly, the constraining nature of the asymmetrical structure on energy cooperation. Consequently, the Russia-Europe energy dialogue mechanism is in a state of stagnation, and Russia-Europe energy cooperation is showing a fragmented trend.</em></p> Shu Weichao Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2445 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 MEDIATING THE GREEK-TURKISH CONFLICT: THE EFFICACY, CHALLENGES, AND INNOVATIVE PATHWAYS OF NATO'S INTERNAL MECHANISMS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2446 <p><em>The ongoing conflict between Greece and Turkey poses significant challenges to regional stability, highlighting the critical role of NATO in mediating such disputes. This paper examines the efficacy of NATO's internal mechanisms in mediating the Greek-Turkish conflict, identifies the key challenges these mechanisms face, and explores innovative pathways for resolution. Employing a mixed-methods approach that includes a literature review, case studies, and comparative analysis, we uncover the strengths and limitations of NATO's current conflict resolution strategies. Our findings reveal that while NATO's mechanisms have facilitated dialogue, political divergences among member states and external geopolitical pressures have often hindered effective mediation. The paper proposes innovative solutions, including enhancing preemptive conflict management tools, establishing more inclusive dialogue platforms, and incorporating technology in mediation processes. These suggestions aim to bolster NATO's role in the Greek-Turkish context and future international conflicts, contributing to a more stable and peaceful international order.</em></p> Sun Jie Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2446 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 CHINA-ARAB ENERGY COOPERATION: CONSTRUCT NEW ENERGY SILK ROAD https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2447 <p><em>Arab countries are one of the most important energy supply bases in the world and a key area for China's ‘Belt and Road’" initiative(BRI). China and Arab countries have long been committed to enhancing energy cooperation. While the global energy transition is the background of China-Arab energy cooperation, the international situation in the region is still in flux, but there is a good political foundation for China-Arab energy cooperation. These are the basic conditions for China-Arab energy cooperation. Against the backdrop of energy transition and continuous changes in the international situation, China and Arab countries are working together to promote energy cooperation in terms of policy design, mechanism improvement, industry chain layout, human resource support and project implementation, combining the BRI and ‘a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind’, and the ‘China-Arab Community with a Shared Future’ in order to promote the building of a China-Arab community of energy cooperation. China-Arab cooperation in the oil and gas sector continues at a high level, while new energy sources are becoming the highlight of China-Arab energy cooperation, which is the ‘new’. In addition, despite frequent changes in the international situation, China and Arab countries have insisted on promoting a community-based approach to cooperation, which is a ‘new’ way of cooperation compared to the energy strategies of Western countries.</em></p> Zhang Yisen Copyright (c) 2024 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2447 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 DRIVERS & OUTCOMES OF HUMAN CAPITAL ANALYTICS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2454 <p><em>The current article analyzes human capital analytics and develops a model for the drivers and outcomes of human capital analytics. A total of 81 articles have been analyzed using content analysis and a model has been developed using systematic literature review. The model identifies four drivers and seven outcomes of human capital analytics. The drivers include organizational culture, employee hard &amp; soft skills, employee competencies and skilled workforce. The outcomes include stronger inter-departmental relationships, improved employee experience and behaviour, knowledge-based decisions, improved company performance, provision of competitive edge, risk reduction and enhancement of strategic organizational capability. We see that human capital analytics is an emerging phenomenon and yet much literature does not exist on the phenomenon. Considering minimal exploration of HR data analytics and its hidden role in the company's performance, the area has been less approached. Our review addresses the mentioned shortcoming and provides a roadmap for the future research.</em></p> Misbah Faiz Copyright (c) 2024 Misbah Faiz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2454 Fri, 15 Mar 2024 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYSIS OF SETAGAYA WARD'S SYSTEM OF DEVELOPING VACANT HOUSES INTO BASES THAT ARE USEFUL TO THE COMMUNITY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2460 <p><em>Setagaya Ward established a consultation service in July 2013 to develop vacant houses into useful bases for the community. This service matches owners of vacant houses with non-profit organizations and produced 22 bases in 10 years. Through analysis of the bases, it became clear that the majority of the bases were using vacant rooms rather than the entire house. Many bases that contribute to social welfare, such as child and disability welfare, have been created. This service can deal with cases that are difficult for private real estate companies to handle. It shows the significance for local governments to operate vacant house utilization systems.</em></p> Shota Yamada Copyright (c) 2024 Shota Yamada https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2460 Fri, 10 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL CAPITAL ON RURAL HOUSEHOLD WELFARE IN MALAWI https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2462 <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>D</em><em>oes </em><em>cooperative membership promote household welfare</em><em>?</em> <em>What are the determinants of social capital</em><em>? What are the negative factors arising from social capital?</em><em> By following a case study approach of two agricultural cooperatives in Malawi, the study focused specifically on rural household welfare to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms through which social capital impacts rural communities in Malawi. The empirical evidence gathered was directed to uncover social capital both as a determinant factor of household welfare as well as a household socio-demographic factor to capture both its exogeneity and its endogeneity. This research narrows the research gap in Malawi, since until this research, there remained a significant gap in the literature regarding the examination of the relationship between social capital and rural household welfare. This research, therefore, focuses specifically on the relationship between rural household income and social capital by using t-tests, also traditional regression analysis to determine the determinants of social capital. Results indicate that cooperative membership improves household welfare as revealed by the</em><em> striking disparities in income levels and variability </em><em>between cooperative members and non-cooperative members. This is attributed to</em><em> the substantial economic benefits of cooperative membership</em><em> such as reduced transactional costs and improved market and information access which are available to cooperative members as opposed to non-members, underscoring the role of social capital embedded in groups and cooperatives in contributing to the socio-economic development and poverty alleviation of rural households. </em><em>Institution</em><em>al</em><em> trust</em><em>, gender, and education</em><em> emerge</em><em>d</em> <em>as key</em><em> predictor</em><em>s of social capital underscoring the </em><em>crucial role</em><em>s of</em><em> trust</em><em>,</em> <em>gender dynamics, and education levels </em><em>within social networks</em><em>. This highlights the need for policy interventions that promote education, address gender disparities, and build people’s trust in local, district, and national institutions to enhance social capital among people in rural areas. Financial barriers, power imbalances, and leadership accountability were found to limit the inclusivity and accessibility of the networks by those who are outside as well as contribute to a lack of trust and reduced participation among members, especially those who feel marginalized or excluded</em>.</p> Natasha Mtika Copyright (c) 2024 Natasha Mtika https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2462 Mon, 20 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A STUDY OF DUTCH SIEGE TACTICS AND FORTIFICATION DESIGNS IN ASIA DURING THE 17TH CENTURY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2466 <p><em>The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the design concepts of Dutch siege fortifications and the VOC's siege practices in Asia in the 17th century. In terms of "the design concepts of Dutch siege fortifications," mainly based on the theoretical work OF BESIEGING TOWNS AND FORTRESSES (Vant Belegherin Der Steden en Sterckten), written by Simon Stevin (1548-1620), a Dutch military engineer. Stevin had served in the Dutch army as a military advisor to Prince Maurice of Nassau (1585-1625), co-planning a number of sieges. Moreover, he was designated to found the engineering school at Leiden University. Thus, Stevin's works reflect the tactics and design concepts of sieges in the 16th-17th centuries. Regarding "the VOC's siege practices in Asia," mainly derived from the establishment of the Dutch East India Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, abbreviated as the VOC) in 1602. Its purposes were not only to gather wealth but also to attack the power of Spain and Portugal. The government empowered the VOC with the rights to recruit troops, purchase quality guns and cannons, and even represent the country to declare war or make peace with the flags of red, white, and blue. As a result, the globe-wide expansion of the VOC led to several sieges in Asia, as well as cross-cultural military exchanges between Europe and Asia.</em></p> Yu-Ting Lin Copyright (c) 2024 Yu-Ting Lin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2466 Tue, 21 May 2024 00:00:00 +0000