PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people <div id="focusAndScope"> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>ISSN 2454-5899</strong></p> </div> Global Research & Development Services Publishing en-US PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences 2454-5899 VICTIMS OR TERRORISTS? A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF WESTERN MEDIA DISCOURSE IN THE DEPICTION OF IRAQI REFUGEES (2007-2017) https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2021 <p><em>Throughout a long and troubled past Iraq has faced many dogmatic, circumspect, and social plights. Serious problems arising as a cause of these plights have caused many of the population to seek sanctuary and protection in other countries. As a result of this, the increase of refugees now inhabiting Eastern and Western countries becomes a focal point of the media. The way these refugees are depicted and perceived by the public as terrorists or victims in the host and non-host countries is heavily influenced by media reports and as such, they have a crucial role to play. The aim of this paper is to highlight the most significant linguistic choices coupled with the ideological point of view of the participants. To achieve this, the researcher analyses British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) news reports employing critical discourse analysis. Accordingly, the researcher employs Wodak's (2001; 2009) discourse-historical approach and van Leeuwen's (2008) sociological categories of actor representation approach.</em> <em>The findings of the analysis have revealed that in the Netherlands the Iraqi refugees are portrayed as victims targeted by hostile laws. In the USA they are portrayed as terrorists that threaten society. Under Trump’s administration seven Arab countries including Iraq have been denied entry. Furthermore, the way Iraqi refugees are described by the media is attributed to the use of generic references. Despite the negative representation of Iraqi refugees by the Dutch government, USA policies, and the Iraqi government, the BBC’s media coverage continues to represent them in a neutral light.</em></p> Doaa Taher Al-dihaymawee Copyright (c) 2022 Doaa Taher Al-dihaymawee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 8 3 01 21 10.20319/pijss.2022.83.0121 CHANGES OF COMPETITIVENESS RANKINGS IN THE CEE COUNTRIES - THE 2022 OUTLOOK https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2087 <p><em>The study focuses on the competitiveness of the V4 countries<span style="text-decoration: line-through;">.</span> The aim of this study is to analyse the relative position of the V4 countries. This follows on from several comparative studies published in previous years, in which we have already dealt with the competitiveness situation of the V4 countries (Varga &amp; Csiszárik-Kocsir, 2020; Varga, 2018; Varga &amp; Csiszárik-Kocsir, 2015). Building on the previous data, we seek to answer the question to what extent the competitiveness of the countries in the region has changed in relation to each other and whether there has been a substantial change in the competitiveness ranking of the V4 countries. By comparing the results, we can see which of the V4 countries performs best and whether there has been a change in competitiveness at the top of the list. The comparison also makes it possible to identify the efforts made by the V4 countries to become more competitive. The 2022 snapshot is of particular interest, as the COVID-19 crisis or the Russian-Ukrainian war have had an impact on national competitiveness developments, although the effects of the latter will only be reflected in statistics and reports at a later stage. National competitiveness changes independently of these factors, so it may be necessary to determine the exact situation on a regular basis.</em></p> János Varga Mónika Garai-Fodor Habil Agnes Csiszárik-Kocsir Habil Copyright (c) 2022 János Varga, Mónika Garai-Fodor Habil, Ágnes Csiszárik-Kocsir Habil https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 8 3 22 39 10.20319/pijss.2022.83.2239 FEARS AND ASSUMPTIONS IN THE PANDEMIC CRISIS IN HUNGARY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2088 <p><em>The pandemic that erupted and escalated in 2020 has brought unprecedented changes to our daily lives. The new situation has challenged everyone. We have had to face unprecedented constraints, change the way we used to work, and experience a new level of uncertainty. Not only households but also businesses and entrepreneurs faced serious problems. Businesses were faced with a huge challenge in terms of disrupted supply chains and the loss of labor. Jobs were lost and jobs became precarious as a result of the pandemic. All these challenges proved to be not only livelihood but also psychologically stressful for the average person. Many feared for their economic livelihoods and even worried about their health. In this study we want to show what were the fears and worries people had about the overnight austerity measures in 2020 and the unprecedented pandemic emergency, according to the results of a primary survey conducted in Hungary. </em></p> Janos Varga Agnes Csiszárik-Kocsir Copyright (c) 2022 Janos Varga , Agnes Csiszárik-Kocsir https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 8 3 40 53 10.20319/pijss.2022.83.4053 FINANCIAL AWARENESS IN EVERYDAY LIFE DUE TO THE PANDEMIC, BASED ON THE RESULTS OF A HUNGARIAN QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2080 <p><em>The 2008 crisis has taught us a lot in many areas. We have realised the importance of making informed choices in all areas of life, including finance. The importance of financial literacy has been brought into sharp focus as a result of these events, which have highlighted the gaps and knowledge disadvantages that could have prevented the events and disadvantages that most of society suffered as a result of the crisis. However, in many countries, financial awareness is still conceptual, much discussed, researched and studied, but in many cases no real change is visible or tangible. In many cases, awareness programmes and initiatives are still in an experimental phase and are not yet integrated into the day-to-day management of problems. In our study, we aim to demonstrate the practical importance of financial literacy, awareness and culture in everyday life, based on the results of a primary research study conducted in Hungary after the pandemic outbreak, interviewing more than 6800 participants.</em></p> Agnes Csiszárik-Kocsir Habil Janos Varga Copyright (c) 2022 Agnes Csiszárik-Kocsir habil, Janos Varga https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 8 3 54 66 10.20319/pijss.2022.83.5466 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES RELATED TO TIN MINING IN BANGKA BELITUNG ISLANDS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2019 <p><em>Massive tin mining in Bangka Belitung Islands significantly contributes to environmental issues, attracting media attention. For instance, several media continuously report environmental issues concerning tin mining with their respective perspectives. Therefore, this study aimed to describe and determine the news’ perspective concerning the tin mining conflict in Bangka Belitung Islands using literature approach. The results showed that the media attention in reporting on tin mining ranged from reclamation issues, regulations and policies, mining accidents, conflicts, impacts of tin mining, Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and law enforcement. This means that the media has not yet reached the investigative stage of discussing certain issues that need in-depth studies. Although the local media have covered various environmental issues, the coverage is only descriptive and not directed towards investigative environmental journalism.</em></p> Dwi Haryadi Ibrahim Ibrahim Darwance Darwance Copyright (c) 2022 Dwi Haryadi, Ibrahim Ibrahim, Darwance Darwance https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 8 3 67 85 10.20319/pijss.2022.83.6785 POST-PANDEMIC TOURISM: OPPORTUNITIES FOR CREATIVE TOURISM https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/2051 <p><em>Tourism was one of the most affected sectors by the outbreak of COVID-19 in early 2020, and the travel sector has faced a dramatic challenge, with the pandemic’s devastating impact on the economy. In tourism, as in other sectors, there is a pre-pandemic and post-pandemic era, and several researchers are now trying to comprehend the future of tourism in a post-pandemic world. In this exploratory text, based on a literature review, we question if creative tourism can play a major role in the rebuilding of the tourism industry, once it is a type of tourism that relies on place-based experiences that uses local resources and involves communities and tourists in immersive activities. In fact, creative tourism seems to be a response to the challenges that actual tourism is facing, namely the change in the tourists’ perception about physical distancing, the need to avoid over tourism, mass tourism and touristification, the desire to reconnect with other people and to have enriching emotional experiences, the increase of awareness about sustainability (for places and future generations) and about the resident’s needs and their living conditions degradation. Our approach relates the ongoing research on post-pandemic tourism, from several points of view – the tourist’s perceptions and demands, the communities and territories’ needs, and the new visions of tourism planners… – with creative tourism, addressing the new opportunities for such type of tourism, and questioning its feasibility and potential contribution to a more meaningful tourism for both hosts and guests, to local economies growth, and overall, to making tourism a more sustainable industry.</em></p> Sonia Moreira Cabeca Copyright (c) 2022 Sonia Moreira Cabeca https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2022-11-15 2022-11-15 8 3 86 106 10.20319/pijss.2022.83.86106