PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences <div id="focusAndScope"> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>ISSN 2454-5899</strong></p> </div> Global Research & Development Services Publishing en-US PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences 2454-5899 SYNTACTIC DISLOCATION PHENOMENA IN THE ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF ROMANCE LANGUAGES – A COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE – <p>Currently numerous studies have concerned themselves with reducing school dropout rates premised on school environment. This has resulted into limited impact of interventions fronted to reduce the high school dropout rates. If schools are to register high retention rates commensurate to the high enrollment levels, there is need for studies and interventions to look&nbsp;beyond school related factors which don’t influence school attendance in isolation but operate alongside other factors such as the individual characteristics of the children and their parents especially the household head, household structure and composition as well as the community factors. Therefore, this study aimed at determining non-school factors associated with school dropouts in Uganda. Assessment was done using the probit regression model and secondary data from Uwezo Uganda National Learning Assessment 2014 survey. Children aged 6-16 were assessed based on their household setting and supplementary data obtained through related surveys of their households, local communities and selected local schools where majority of the children in the community were enrolled. The likelihood of a child dropping out of school increased with the child’s age and reduced with; increase in years of preschool attendance and household heads education level. Furthermore, school dropouts were more likely among the disabled children and children with no biological parents in the household. The study recommended focusing on pupil retention, parent sensitization regarding the merits of formal education and the need to promote mandatory pre-school education where children’s’ reading, writing and numeracy can be nurtured at an early age. There is need to explore further the effect of other non-school factors that could influence school dropout directly or indirectly or interactively with school related factors including peer social capital, student loan scheme programmes, government education policies to curb school absenteeism and commitment to their implementation, migration among others.</p> Alice-Magdalena Bodoc Copyright (c) 2018 Authors 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 7 3 169 188 10.20319/pijss.2022.73.169188 WOMEN AND PEACEBUILDING: CAN NIGERIA LEARN FROM OTHER COUNTRIES? <p>The inclusion of women in conflict resolution and peacebuilding is an important notion that has been well documented. Despite a widespread call for inclusive peacebuilding and progress in some African countries, in Nigeria, women are yet to achieve direct representation in formal peace and policy decision-making processes. The complex nature of conflict in Nigeria makes it imperative to explore all possible solutions to peacebuilding, including women’s potential, which remains largely untapped. This article examined, through a review of the literature, the strategies that women employed to achieve direct representation at the table in formal peace talks in Kenya and South Africa. The conflict situations in the two countries resonate to some extent, with some of the current insurgencies in Nigeria.&nbsp; The strategies of both the Kenyan and South African women were similar. &nbsp;High-profile women in the two countries brought their skillset and competencies to work across women’s groups regardless of social, religious, or political affiliation. They formed strong coalitions and were able to unite to the lobby, dialogue, and push for representation in formal peace talks. They engaged with the government to be included as negotiators and mediators. In Nigeria, there is a need to change patriarchal norms and traditional mindsets that prevent women from representation at the peace table through sensitization. It is also essential to enlighten relevant stakeholders, especially the government, on the importance of leveraging women’s skillset in peacebuilding initiatives.</p> Retta E Akingbade Adetanwa I Odebiyi Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-11-14 2021-11-14 7 3 01 17 10.20319/pijss.2021.73.0117 MNOC'S LEVEL OF ENGAGEMENT WITH HUMAN RIGHTS OBLIGATIONS IN TRANSNATIONAL LITIGATIONS FROM THE NIGER DELTA <p>The approach that Multinational Oil companies (MNOCs) use to comply with their human rights obligations translates to the different levels of engagement with stakeholders. For example, concerns regarding alleged human rights and environmental violations of MNOCs usually start with a notification, and then a formal complaint and if this is handled improperly will result in litigation. The ways MNOCs handle the disputes reflects whether the company pursues an inactive, reactive, active or proactive level of engagement with its human right obligations. This paper evaluates each level of engagement against a selected set of transnational human rights and environmental litigations arising from the Niger Delta. This evaluation reveals that MNOCs with a proactive approach considers the engagement and implementation of their human right obligations as a shared societal responsibility and are more inclined to look at the background of the complaint to solve the underlying problems in collaboration with all stakeholders. This paper, therefore, concludes that a proactive approach will lead to an improvement in human rights and environmental protection, in partnerships with local governments, local communities, and NGOs.</p> Nkem Violet Ochei Elimma Ezeani Craig Anderson Copyright (c) 2021 Authors 2021-11-15 2021-11-15 7 3 18 41 10.20319/pijss.2021.73.1841 THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RAPE AND CONSTRUCTIONS OF MASCULINITY AND DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (DRC) <p>War is an event, at its occurrence destroys nations. More than five million lives were claimed during the conflict of the DRC. It caused heinous destruction to properties, infrastructure, impeded national growth, and caused a lot of citizens, especially women and girls to suffer greatly, in addition, stereotyping the nation as “the rape capital of the world”. It is against this background that this study sought to delve into the case of the DRC to explore why the DRC was tagged “the capital of rape in the world”. To find out why rape was used as a weapon of war against women and girls. To explore whether it was a way of money-making by the influence of external bodies or a belief. This study employed a qualitative approach relying on administered questionnaires, literature from publications, presented papers, journals, books, and useful websites. Pert the findings or results, rape cases in the DRC is not a belief, but rare cases and in a way, money-making on the part of some NGOs and indigenes. This paper concludes with some questions: Are neighbouring countries and international organizations still trooping in to exploit the natural resources of DRC? Is the DRC truly the “rape capital of the world”? Is this not a myth or probably a stereotype since some NGOs offer natives the platform to inflate the figures based on forging rape to get medical attention? This is a wake-up call for the African Union, the United Nations, Human Rights Watch etc. to take strict measures to curb the menace (violence against women and girls during conflicts or wars).</p> Ruth Frimpomaa Anarfi Gordon Copyright (c) 2021 Ruth Frimpomaa Anarfi Gordon 2021-12-15 2021-12-15 7 3 42 58 10.20319/pijss.2021.73.4258 THE EVOLUTION OF COLONIAL LEGACY AND SOCIAL STATUS OF WOMEN, A CASE STUDY OF EGYPT BETWEEN 1952-2016 <p>The topic of female’s rights and gender equality is an issue of the Arab uprisings call for democracy. In the Arab Muslim-majority nations, some creeds have influenced the impact of the gender discussion. Namely Islamic teaching and local cultural practices about females' duties in a culture in the Arab world: Western, European colonial perceptions of the rights of females, as well as ultimately policy reforms that are gender-related nationwide. The study aims to look at the situations (gender inequality) of women 11. in the Arab world before and after colonization, with a focus on Egypt. The impact of colonial heritage on women’s formal and higher education as well as recent gender practices in the public sphere, the responses from the global actions taken, and response from the national level regarding females’ rights. This research used the descriptive approach relying on literature from publications, presented papers, journals, books, and useful websites to focus on the topic. It also examines the parallels and variations in gender parity reform strategies in Egypt. However, part of the findings is that women's abilities have been deliberately relinquished to the back and downplayed by society.</p> Ruth Frimpomaa Anarfi Gordon Qianhong Zhang Copyright (c) 2021 Ruth Frimpomaa Anarfi Gordon, Qianhong Zhang 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 7 3 59 81 10.20319/pijss.2021.73.5981 SOCIAL AND LINGUISTIC DIVERSITY IN MODERN BRITAIN THROUGH THE CONTEMPORARY DETECTIVE NOVEL <p>The aim of this paper is twofold: to examine how present-day detective novels reflect Britain’s geographic, social, and linguistic diversities in a way that perhaps no other single genre of fiction does, and to consider how this differs from those works that are generally regarded as the classic examples in this field. Current writing in this category exhibits various characteristics that distinguish these works from older works, and these features are reviewed and possible reasons for the recent diversification considered. However, attention is also paid to the fact that there are, nonetheless, modern works which seem to more closely follow the model of the ‘traditional’ detective story. It is possible that there are two distinct trends involved, which overlap in some areas to complement each other in terms of filling the various niches in the readership of detective fiction. This is essentially an empirical study, based on the author’s extensive reading of detective fiction, both classic and contemporary, over a number of years. Although much of this was originally done as a hobby, personal observation of the extremely wide-ranging nature of the modern British detective novel led to a desire to examine the diversity of the genre in detail.</p> Anne C Ihata Copyright (c) 2021 Anne C. Ihata 2021-12-23 2021-12-23 7 3 82 103 10.20319/pijss.2021.73.82103 LOCAL TAXES BETWEEN OBLIGATION AND FISCAL CITIZENSHIP <p>The fiscal compliance of the taxpayer reported in percentages regarding the realization of the receipts exceeds in meaning the payment of an obligation established at the level of fiscal policy. As an individual or an entity, the citizen-taxpayer transfers sums of money in the form of tax, but this transfer has in addition to the historical-economic-legislative component and a defining psycho-social one for what we call fiscal citizenship. Visible only in the voluntary fulfilment of fiscal obligations, less in positive attitudes and beliefs, perceptions, motivation, and trust in local authorities, fiscal citizenship remains the barometer of the citizen-public administration or public service relationship. Fiscal citizenship and its defining elements can indicate the extent to which citizens feel defended by democracy and the rule of law. It cannot strengthen fiscal citizenship without strengthening trust in public authorities in terms of fiscal policy and taxation, without the responsibility for the efficient use of the amounts collected, without considering the taxpayer in a threefold way: partner, beneficiary, and client of the local public tax service. A culture based on rights and responsibilities or the reciprocity of responsibility and the empowerment of the citizen-taxpayer is needed.</p> Dorina Sandu Copyright (c) 2021 Dorina Sandu 2022-01-07 2022-01-07 7 3 104 119 10.20319/pijss.2022.73.104119 AN ANALYSIS OF THE STATUS QUO OF CHINA'S AID TO PACIFIC ISLAND COUNTRIES <p>&nbsp;In recent years, with the increase of China's aid to Pacific Island Countries(PIC), the issue of China's aid to Pacific Island countries has become a research hotspot in academic circles, and scholars from various countries have conducted different degrees of research on this. This article is a review article, enumerating some major books and articles for research on this issue. To better understand the research status of scholars from various countries in recent years on this issue, this article uses the literature analysis method to summarize and briefly analyze the main research results of the academic community. After sorting it out, it is found that scholars have different attitudes towards China's aid to Pacific Island countries. Some scholars hold negative views of China’s aid, while China’s scholars appreciate their aid. Regarding the development trend of this issue, scholars gradually gained a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of China's aid in the region and began to conduct more case studies. This research review can help people quickly understand the current research status of this issue. The article collates scholars' analysis of various aspects of China's aid, such as purpose, impact, and limitations.</p> Xuande Fan Yuting Gu Copyright (c) 2021 Xuande Fan, Yuting Gu 2022-01-08 2022-01-08 7 3 120 135 10.20319/pijss.2022.73.120135 THE IMPACTS OFFREE MOVEMENT OF SKILLED LABOUR IN ASEAN UPON VIETNAM <p>In the context of the 4.0 technology revolution creating an economic platform transformed from a model based on low-cost labor to a knowledge economy requiring highly skilled workers, Vietnam has witnessed the sharply increasing demand for skilled workers. Since joining ASEAN, Vietnam has proactively participated and implemented free movement of labor commitments within the ASEAN Economic Community. This paper aims to clarify the impact of these commitments on the Vietnamese policies and laws on attracting skilled labor from other ASEAN member states. The paper analyzes both positive and limited aspects of these impacts before 2003 and since 2003 until now. The results of this study show that Vietnam's commitments to the free movement of labor in ASEAN positively impact the completion of Vietnam policy and regulations on attracting ASEAN skilled labor, but the level of impacts is limited.</p> Hang Tran Thuy Ngoc Lan Bui Thi Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Hang Tran Thuy , Ngoc Lan Bui Thi 2022-01-18 2022-01-18 7 3 136 153 10.20319/pijss.2022.73.136153 TRANSLATION QUALITY IN INTERNATIONAL LARGE-SCALE ASSESSMENTS IN EDUCATION <p>During the last 20 years, large-scale international assessments in education became part of international research. The increased number of countries participating in the international studies of PISA, TIMSS, and PIRLS and translation of their assessment instruments in many languages of the world is accompanied by the request to ensure translation quality. Translation quality and its management became and are an important concern for the PISA, TIMMS, and PIRLS. The linguistics quality control centres have developed translation policies, standards, and procedures. This paper aims to present the translation policy and translation quality procedures implemented by PISA, TIMSS, and PIRLS in the last 20-years. The paper is focused on the need for translation quality and illustrates how translation quality is implemented in practice. The paper is based on the translation guidelines, secondary data from the technical reports of these international assessment studies, and recent research findings. This paper concludes that the suitable policy and procedures of translation quality used by PISA, TIMSS, and PIRLS have provided a high quality of translated instruments that has enabled the comparison of assessment results. The article also highlights PISA's, TIMSS's, and PIRLS's contribution to the development of translation quality theory and practice of the educational materials.</p> Luela Liçi Copyright (c) 2018 Authors 2022-01-19 2022-01-19 7 3 154 168 10.20319/pijss.2022.154168