DEPICTION OF WOMEN IN THE PAINTINGS OF PAKISTANI ARTIST, IQBAL HUSSAIN
Keywords:Prostitutes, Lahore, Women
From 1970’s onwards, works of many Pakistani artists have focused on the themes associated with the general masses including traditions, displacement, gender, ideology (Hashmi & Ata-Ullah, 2009, p. 68), social issues and lately, terrorism. Following this trend, paintings of artist Iqbal Hussain remain significant in advocating the realities of the marginalized class of society. This paper analyses Hussain’s depiction of prostitute women and their hardships, who are considered as a symbol of disgrace in a Muslim country like Pakistan, which is moving towards religious extremism. The research shows that being a son of a courtesan, Hussain through his paintings represents the image and problems of dancing girls and courtesans of Shahi Mohalla, Lahore. These women were considered as the custodians of artistic traditions in the Mughal era (Ghauri, 2003). However, over the time they lost their status in Pakistan. In this context, Hussain’s work attempt to regain the respect for these women in society by advocating their everyday struggles among the national and international audience. This study is a secondary research. It draws upon the examination of diverse writings on art literature, newspaper archives, books and interpretation of a variety of Hussain’s paintings. The research on Hussain’s work explores further research avenues related to the role of women and impact of Islamization in Pakistan, historical analysis of different political governments towards the prostitutes in Pakistan and the idea of 'shame' and 'honor' in the South Asian arts, literature, and cinema.
Brown, T. L. (2006). The dancing girls of Lahore: Selling love and saving dreams in Pakistans ancient pleasure district.(p.5). New York: Harper Perennial.
Ghauri, E. S. (2003). Pakistan cultural center struggles with its history. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved July 15, 2016, from https://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0814/p11s01-wosc.html
Hashmi, S., & Ata-Ullah, N. (2009). Hanging fire, contemporary art from Pakistan.(p. 68). New York, NY: Asia Society Museum.
Herald exclusive: Body language. (2011, February 03). Dawn. Retrieved January 30, 2016, from https://www.dawn.com/news/603529
Iqbal Hussain’s courtesans of Heera Mandi come to Karachi. (2015, December 04). The Express Tribune. Retrieved July 02, 2016, from https://tribune.com.pk/story/1003444/honest-art-iqbal-hussains-courtesans-of-heera-mandi-come-to-karachi/
Jalil, X. (2017, April 30). Fade from red: The diamond of Lahore has dulled. Dawn. Retrieved September 04, 2017, from https://www.dawn.com/news/1330106
Leiby, M. (2012, November 18). Pakistani artist quietly honors forbidden culture. The Washington Post. Retrieved September 19, 2016
Lavinia Filippi N.d.Iqbal Hussain | ARTEiN. http://www.artein.it/?tag=iqbal-hussain, accessed February 5, 2016.
Michael, C. (2010). Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864–1901) | Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved October 02, 2016, from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/laut/hd_laut.htm
Mirza, Z. K. (2016). Gender Disparity In Pakistani Media Organizations In The Digital Age. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 2(3), 19-37. https://doi.org/10.20319/pijss.2016.23.1937
Naqvi, A. (1998). Image and identity: Fifty years of painting and sculpture in Pakistan.(p. 591-92 ).
Poignantworks: The world of Iqbal Hussain. (2011, March 06). Dawn. Retrieved January 30, 2016, from https://www.dawn.com/news/611107
Rumi, R. (2007, February 06). Iqbal Hussain – Lahore's controversial artist. Retrieved September 07, 2016, from https://razarumi.wordpress.com/2007/02/06/iqbal-hussain-lahores-controversial-artist/
Shāhid, E. E., & Yusuf, Z. (1989). Artbook: Adasia 89 Pakistan. Karachi: Pakistan Advertising Association
Sharma, M. (2017). Cinematic Representations of Partition of India. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 492-501
The artist of imprisoned souls. (2015, September 06). Dawn. Retrieved October 02, 2016, from https://www.dawn.com/news/1204490
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Guide. (2012). New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.