ORIENTATION TOWARDS CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES: A STUDY OF NON-BUSINESS STUDENTS IN HONG KONG
Keywords:Business Students, Corporate Social Responsibility, Orientation, Measurement Scale
AbstractIn many ways our daily livings are shaped by business decisions.As studentsare future decision-makers of their profession, there is a needto educate them with a strongersense of ethicality and corporate social responsibility(CSR)(Evans and Weiss, 2008; Mohammad, 2011).Beforewe can identifyeffective ways in changingstudents’ orientation towards CSR(CSRO), we first need to devise a way inassessinga person’s CSRO.Using Carroll’s (1979)CSR constructsof Economic, Legal, Ethical and Discretionary(Philanthropy), Aupperle (1982) validateda forced-choice scale (E-CSRO) to assess a person’sCSRO. Wong (2017) translateditinto Chinese (C-CSRO)and tested with N=793 Chinese business studentsin Hong Kong.This studyfurther validated C-CSRO with N=827 non-businessChinese studentsandexaminedtheirCSRO.Sampleswere randomly halvedinto two N=383and N=444.Sample 1 showedC-CSRO hashigh item reliability (.915 to -.783);Exploratory Factor Analysisrevealeditsfactor structureissimilar toE-CSRO.Confirmatory Factor Analysis on Sample 2 supportedadequate model fit.Overall mean score ranking of the four CSRO in descending order of importance were Legal, Economic, Ethical and Discretionary.Gender and programme streamsin particular havesignificant effects (p < .05)overthe Economic and Discretionarydimensions.Avenues for future research cantest C-CSRO in other Chinese communities using cross group CFA on measurement invariance; explore influence from other moderating variables onCSRO so that impactful educational initiatives to specific studen tgroup can be found.
Alonso-Almeida, M. D. M., Fernández de Navarrete, F. C., & Rodriguez-Pomeda, J. (2015). Corporate social responsibility perception in business students as future managers: a multifactorial analysis. Business Ethics: A European Review, 24(1), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/beer.12060
Angelidis, J. P. & Ibrahim, N. A. (2004). An exploratory study of the impact of degree of religiousness upon and individual’s corporate social responsiveness orientation. Journal of Business Ethics, 52(2), 119-128. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BUSI.0000033606.27489.bf
Arli, D., Bucic, T., Harris, J., & Lasmono, H. (2014). Perceptions of corporate social responsibility among Indonesian college students. Journal of Asia - Pacific Business, 15(3), 231. https://doi.org/10.1080/10599231.2014.934634
Arlow, P. (1991). Personal characteristics in college students’ evaluations of business ethics and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics. 10, 63-69. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00383694
Aupperle, K. E. (1982). An empirical inquiry into the social responsibilities as defined by corporations: An examination of various models and relationships (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Georgia
Aupperle, K. E., Hatfield, J.D., & Carroll, A. B. (1983). Instrument development and application in corporate social responsibility. Academy of Management Proceedings, 8 (1), 369-373. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.1983.4976378
Aupperle, K.E., Simmons III, F.B. & Acar, W. (1990). An empirical investigation into how entrepreneurs view their social responsibilities. Proceedings of the Academy of Management.
Baden, D., & Harwood, I. A. (2013). Terminology matters: A critical exploration of corporate social responsibility terms. Journal of Business Ethics, 116(3), 615-627. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-012-1498-9
Bartlett, M. S. (1954). A note on the multiplying factors for various χ 2 approximations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 296-298.
Bentler P. M. & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structure. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.88.3.588
Bovaird, J. A., & Koziol, N. A. (2012). Measurement models for ordered-categorical indicators. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Handbook of structural equation modeling (pp.498-511). NY: Guildford Press.
Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K.A. Bollen and J.S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models. Beverly Hills:Sage.
Burton, B., Farh, J. L., & Hegarty, W. H. (2000). A Cross-cultural comparison of corporate social responsibility of orientation: Hong Kong vs. United States students. Teaching Business Ethics, 4: 151-167. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009862130160
Burton, B. K., & Hegarty, W. H. (1999). Some determinants of student corporate social responsibility orientation. Business & Society, 38(2), 188-205. https://doi.org/10.1177/000765039903800204
Carroll, A. B. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 4, 497-505. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1979.4498296https://doi.org/10.2307/257850
Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business Horizons, 34, 39-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/0007-6813(91)90005-G
Carroll, A. B. (1999). Corporate social responsibility: Evolution of a definitional construct. Business Society, 38(3), 268-295. https://doi.org/10.1177/000765039903800303
Cattell, R. B. (1966). The Scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245-276. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr0102_10
Coate, C. J., & Frey, K. J. (2000). Some evidence on the ethical disposition of accounting students: Context and gender implications. Teaching Business Ethics, 4(4), 379-404. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009827807550
Cochran, P. L. (2007). The evolution of corporate social responsibility. Business Horizon. 50, 449-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2007.06.004
Dahlsrud, A. (2008). How corporate social responsibility is defined: an analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 15(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.132
Dhiman, S. (2008). Enhancing Business Education: Bringing Ethics and Excellence to Classroom. The Journal of Global Business Issues – Conference Edition , 7-11.
Dusuki, A. W., & Yusof, T.F. (2008). The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility Model: Empirical evidence from Malaysian stakeholder perspectives. Malaysian Accounting Review, 7(2), pp. 29-54.
Edmonson, V.C., & Carroll, A. B. (1999). Giving back: An examination of the philanthropic motivations, orientations and activities of large black-owned businesses. Journal of Business Ethics, 19(2), 171-179. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005993925597
Elias, R. Z. (2004). An examination of business students' perception of corporate social responsibilities before and after bankruptcies. Journal of Business Ethics, 52(3), 267-281. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BUSI.0000037558.74693.d5
Fitzpatrick, J. (2013). Business students' perceptions of corporate social responsibility. College Student Journal, 47(1), 86-95.
Fitzpatrick, J., & Cheng, J. (2014). An investigation of United States and Hong Kong business students' perceptions of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Academic and Business Ethics, 8, 1.
Floyd, F. J. & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor Analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 286-299. https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3518.104.22.1686
Ford, R. C., & Richardson, W. D. (1994). Ethical decision making: a review of the empirical literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 13, 205-221. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02074820
Frederick, W. C. (2006). Corporation, be good! The story of corporate social responsibility. IN: Dog Ear Publishing.
Garriga, E., & Melé, D. (2004). Corporate social responsibility theories: Mapping the territory. Journal of Business Ethics, 53(1-2), 51-71. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:BUSI.0000039399.90587.34
George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Hancock, G.R. (2006). Power analysis in covariance structure modeling. In G.R. Hancock and R.O. Mueller, R.O. (Eds)., Structural equation modeling. A second course (pp.69-115). Greenwich: Information Age Publishing, Inc. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1303_2
Hasan, R. A. (2018). Consumerism In Cosmetics Industry: The Case Study Of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices Of The Body Shop In Pakistan. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 3(3), 1203-1219.
Hoyle, R. H. (2011). Structural equation modeling for social and personality psychology. London: Sage https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446287965
Hoyle, R.H. (2012). Handbook of structural equation modeling. New York: Guildford Press.
Hu, L.T. and Bentler, P.M. (1999). Cut off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
Hunt, S. D., & Vitell, S. (1986). A general theory of marketing ethics. Journal of Macromarketing, 6, 5-165. https://doi.org/10.1177/027614678600600103
Ibrahim, N. A., & Angelidis, J. A. (1993). Corporate social responsibility: A comparative analysis of perceptions of top executives and business students. The Mid - Atlantic Journal of Business, 29(3), 303.
Ibrahim, N. A. & Angelidis, J. P. (1995). The corporate social responsiveness orientation of board members: Are there differences between inside and outside directors? Journal of Business Ethics, 14, 405-410. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00872102
Ibrahim, N. A., Angelidis, J. P., & Howard, D. P. (2006). Corporate social responsibility: A comparative analysis of perceptions of practicing accountants and accounting students. Journal of Business Ethics, 66(2-3), 157-167. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-005-5572-4
Ibrahim, N. A., Howard, D. P., & Angelidis, J. P. (2008). The relationship between religiousness and corporate social responsibility orientation: Are there differences between business managers and students? Journal of Business Ethics, 78(1-2), 165-174. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-006-9321-0
Jamali, D., & Mirshak, R. (2007). Corporate social responsibility (CSR): Theory and practice in a developing country context. Journal of Business Ethics, 72(3), 243-262. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-006-9168-4
Jones, M. (1999). The institutional determinants of social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 20(2), 163-179. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1005871021412
Joyner, B. E., & Payne, D. (2002). Evolution and implementation: A study of values, business ethics and corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 41(4), 297-311. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021237420663
Kaiser, H. F. (1974). An index of factorial simplicity. Psychometrika, 39(1), 31-36. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02291575
Kaplan, D. (1995) Statistical power in structural equation modeling. In R. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling concepts, issues and applications (pp.100-117) California: Sage.
Kraft, K. L. & Singhapakdi, A. (1995). The relative importance of social responsibility in determining organizational effectiveness: student responses IT. Journal of Business Ethics, 14, 315-326. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00871902
Lämsä, A., Vehkaperä, M., Puttonen, T., & Pesonen, H. (2008). Effect of business education on women and men students’ attitudes on corporate responsibility in society. Journal of Business Ethics, 82, 45-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9561-7
Leveson, L., & Joiner, T. A. (2014). Exploring corporate social responsibility values of millennial job-seeking students. Education & Training, 56(1), 21-34. https://doi.org/10.1108/ET-11-2012-0121
Lindgreen, A., & Swaen, V. (2010). Corporate Social Responsibility. International Journal of Management Reviews. 12(1), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2009.00277.x
Maignan, I., & Ferrell, O. C. (2000). Measuring corporate citizenship in two countries: the case of the United States and France. Journal of Business Ethics, 23(3), 283-297. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006262325211
Moir, L. (2001). What do we mean by corporate social responsibility? Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 1(2), 16-22. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000005486
Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric Theory 92nd ed.). New Your, NY: MacGraw-Hill.
O’Neill, H.M., Saunders, C.B., & McCarthy, A.D. (1989). Board members, corporate social responsiveness and profitability: are tradeoffs necessary? Journal of Business Ethics, 8, 353-357. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00381726
Pinkston, T. S., & Carroll, A. B. (1996). A retrospective examination of CSR orientations: have they changed? Journal of Business Ethics, 15, 199-206. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00705587
Quazi, A. M., & O'Brien, D. (2000). An empirical test of a cross-national model of corporate social responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics, 25(1), 33-51. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006305111122
Schwartz, M. S., & Carroll, A. B. (2003). Integrating and unifying competing and complementary frameworks: The search for a common core in the business and society field. Business & Society, 47(2), 148-186. https://doi.org/10.1177/0007650306297942
Singhapakdi, A., Marta, J., Rallapalli, K. & Rao, C.P. (2000). Toward and understanding of religiousness and marketing ethics: An empirical study. Journal of Business Ethics, 27(4), 305-320. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006342224035
Smith, W. J., Wokutch, R. E., Harrington, K. V., & Dennis, B. S. (2001). An examination of the influence of diversity and stakeholder role on corporate social orientation. Business & Society, 40(3), 266-294. https://doi.org/10.1177/000765030104000303
Strong, K. C., & Meyer, G. D. (1992). An integrative descriptive model of ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 11(2), 89-94. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00872315
Schwartz, M.S. (2017). Corporate Social Responsibility. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315259222
Swanson, D. L. (1999). Toward an integrative theory of business and society: A research strategy for corporate social performance. Academy of Management Review, 24(3), 506-521. https://doi.org/10.2307/259139 https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1999.2202134
Visser, W. (2005). Revisiting Carroll’s CSR Pyramid, an African perspective. In M. Huniche & E. R. Pedersen (Eds.), Corporate citizenship in developing countries: new partnership perspectives (pp. 29-55). Denmark: Copenhagen Business School Press.
Windsor, D. (2006). Corporate social responsibility: Three key approaches. Journal of Management Studies, 43(1), 93-114. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00584.x
Wan S. W. (2006). Defining corporate social responsibility. Journal of Public Affairs, 6(3-4),176-184. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.227
Wang, L., & Juslin, H. (2012). Values and corporate social responsibility perceptions of Chinese university students. Journal of Academic Ethics, 10(1), 57-82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10805-012-9148-5
Wong, A., Long, F., & Elankumaran, S. (2010). Business students' perception of corporate social responsibility: the United States, China, and India. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 17(5), 299-310. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.216
Wong, P. M. D. (2017). Initial validation of a measurement scale assessing students’ orientation towards corporate social responsibility in a Chinese society. In the General Education Conference 2017: Evolution and Transformation, Federation for Self-financing Tertiary Education, Hong Kong, China.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.