THE PSYCHOLOGY OF AUDIENCE AWARENESS IN THE COMPOSING PROCESS: THE CASE FOR NOVICE AND EXPERT WRITERS

Authors

  • Noor Hanim Rahmat Akademi Pengajian Bahasa Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam Malaysia
  • Nadiah Hj Thantawi Jauhari Akademi Pengajian Bahasa Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam Malaysia
  • Noor Ahnis Othman Akademi Pengajian Bahasa Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam Malaysia
  • Nor Fazlin Mohd Ramli Akademi Pengajian Bahasa Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam Malaysia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.20319/pijss.2018.42.440452

Keywords:

Cognitive Process, ESL Writers, Academic Writing, Audience Awareness, Metadiscourse

Abstract

Writing is seen as a social cognitive process by the writer and teaching it will have to focus on the social context. Writers write so that their ideas can be conveyed and understood by their readers. This means writers write with the audience in mind-all the time. Different writers address their audience in different ways. The objective of this research is to explore the strategies used by different types of ESL writers to address their audience. Specifically, this case study focuses on the audience awareness strategies through the use of interactive and interactional discourse. Two writers were used as subjects in this qualitative study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were analysed. Findings reveal different writers use different metadiscourse to communicate with their audience. Results of this study bear interesting implications in the teaching and learning of academic writing in the ESL classroom.

References

Alyousef ,H.S. (2015) An Investigation of Metadiscourse Features in International Postgraduate

Anderson, L. W., & Krathwohl, D. R. (Eds.). (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of educational objectives: Complete edition, New York : Longman.

Bereiter, C. & Scardamalia, M. (2014). Knowledge building and knowledge creation: One concept, two hills to climb. In S. C. Tan, H. J. So, J. Yeo (Eds.) Knowledge creation in education (pp. 35-52). Singapore: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-287-047-6_3

Boon,Y.M., Ismail,R., Shun,C.L., Marimuthu,R., Mohamed,R. and Teck. H.L. (2017) UiTM

Brown,H.D. (1994) Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach. US: Prentice Hall.

Business Students’ Texts. SAGE Journals. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2158244015610796

Deane,P. , Odedahl,N., Fowled,M. and Welsh,C. Bivens-Tatum,J. (2008) Cognitive Models of Writing: Writing Proficinecy as a Complex Integrated Skill. Research Report by Educational Testing Service. Retrieved from https://www.ets.org/Media/Research/pdf/RR-08-55.pdf

Galbraith, D. (2009) Cognitive Models of Writing. German as a Foreign Language Journal No 2(3). pp 6-22

Kuhi,D. , Asadollahfam,H., and Amin,S. (2014) An Investigation of the Effect of Audience Awareness-Raising on EFL Learners’ Use of Interpersonal Resources in Essay Writing. Proceedings at International Conference on Current Trends in ELT. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Science 98. Pp 1016-1025. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.03.512

Lei, X. (2016) Understanding Writing Strategy Use from a Sociocultural Perspective: The Case of Skilled and Less Skilled Writer. Science Direct. Vol 60. Pp105-116 Retrieved from Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0346251X16300598 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2016.06.006

Longo, B. (1994). The role of metadiscourse in persuasion. Technical Communication: Journal of the Society for Technical Communication , v41 n2 p348-52 Retrieved from https://www.tcbok.org/wiki/bibliography-expert-vs-novice-writing-strategies/

Lundstrom,K., Diekema,A.R., Leary,H. , Haderlie,S., and Holliday,W. (2015) Teaching and Learning Information Synthesis. Communications in Information Literact. Vol 9(1)

Mah, B. Y., & Khor, G. S. (2015). Poor Writing Skill among UiTM Students: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Literature on SIL’s Learner Domain. In UPALS Language Colloquium 2015 e-Proceedings (pp. 23– 34). Penang, Malaysia: Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) Penang Branch.

Mameghani,A.A. , and Ebrahimi,S.F. (2017) Realization of Attitude and Engagement Markers in Students’ Presentations. International Journal of Applied Linguistics and English Literature. Vol 6(2) . Retrieved from http://www.journals.aiac.org.au/index.php/IJALEL/article/view/2894 https://doi.org/10.7575/10.7575/aiac.ijalel.v.6n.2p.73

Rahmat,N.H. (2016) Analyzing Audience Awareness in Academic Writing among Undergraduates. Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastera, Vol 16(1). Retrieved from http://ejournal.upi.edu/index.php/BS_JPBSP/article/view/3065 https://doi.org/10.17509/bs_jpbsp.v16i1.3065

Rahmat,N.H., Arepin,M., Mohd Yunos,D.R. , and Syed Abdul Rahman,S.A. (2017) Analyzing Perceived Writing Difficulties through the Social Cognitive Theory. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences. Vol 3(2), pp 1487-1499 https://doi.org/10.20319/pijss.2017.32.14871499

Serholt,S. (2012) Hedges and Boosters in Academic Writing. A Study of Gender Differences in Essays Written by Swedish Advanced Learners of English. Goteborgs Universitet. Retrieved from https://gupea.ub.gu.se/bitstream/2077/29526/1/gupea_2077_29526_1.pdf

Spivey, N. N. (1990). Transforming texts constructive processes in reading and writing. Written Communication, 7, 256–287. https://doi.org/10.1177/0741088390007002004

Students’ Writing Needs, Writing Problems, and Language Courses: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Literature Prior to WeCWI’s Course Integration.International Academic Research Journal of Social Science 3(1) Page 98-103. Retrieved from http://www.iarjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/IARJSS2017_1_98-103.pdf

Tang,J. (2013) Pragmatic Functions of hedged and Politeness. International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature. Vol 2(4) Retrieved from http://www.journals.aiac.org.au/index.php/IJALEL/article/view/993

Wei,J. , Li,Y., Zhou,T. and Gong,Z. (2016) Studies on Metadiscourse since the 3rd Millennium. Journal of Education and Practice. Vol 7(9).Retrieved from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1095757.pdf

Zhao,R. and Hirvela,A. (2015)Undergraduate ESL students’ engagement in academic reading and writing in learning to write a synthesis paper. Reading ina Foreign Language. Vol 27(2). Pp 219-241

Downloads

Published

2018-07-31

How to Cite

Rahmat, N. H., Jauhari, N. H., Othman, N. A., & Ramli, N. F. (2018). THE PSYCHOLOGY OF AUDIENCE AWARENESS IN THE COMPOSING PROCESS: THE CASE FOR NOVICE AND EXPERT WRITERS. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2), 440–452. https://doi.org/10.20319/pijss.2018.42.440452

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.