• Fangzheng Zhou Kent School, Connecticut, United States of America




Europe, Colonialism, “Frontier”, “Sphere”, Competition, Cooperation


As a historical phenomenon, European colonialism has, from its beginning through the present day, a tremendous influence on the history of human beings, and has long been studied by students and scholars from all parts of the world. Traditional understandings of the motivations and impacts of European colonialism has focused on the economic, political, and religious areas, which, without doubts, are true and sound. However, the mentality behind the decisions and actions of colonialism was not commonly understood. This paper focus on exploring this type of predatory “frontier” mentality, as well as its antithesis the “sphere” mentality, through interpreting and understanding the human mind behind the various causes and consequences of European colonialism. Given the current global situation, the growth of the “sphere” mentality and the decline of its antithesis is likely to be the general trend as a product of the evolution of human civilization in the twenty first century. This shift in human mentality from competition to cooperation is the biggest legacy of European colonialism. 


Ahadi, N., Deebhijarn, S., Sornsaruht, P., Taghipour, A., Mohammadi, N., & Lotfian, A. (2015). Russian Federation Geo-Economic Impact and Relationship in Shanghai Cooperation Organization and its Influence in the Energy Market. People, 1(1), 42-51. Retrieved from https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/people/article/view/29

Alpha History. (n.d.). The human cost of world war I. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from alphahistory.com website: http://alphahistory.com/worldwar1/human-cost/

Cordesman, A. H. (2010, March 11). International cooperation in counterterrorism: Redefining the threat and the requirement. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from Center for Strategic and International Studies Arleigh A. Burke Chair in Strategy website: https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/legacy_files/files/publication/ 100316_New_Reports_International_Cooperation_Counterterrorism.pdf

Daggett, S. (2010, June 29). Costs of major U.S. wars. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from CRS Report for Congress website: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22926.pdf

Farnesina. (n.d.). Fight against terrorism. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from Farnesina website: https://www.esteri.it/mae/en/politica_estera/temi_globali/lotta_terrorismo/

Forbes, S. (2014, August 2). The horrid economic consequences of world war I -- we still suffer from them. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from Forbes.com website: https://www.forbes.com/sites/steveforbes/2014/08/02/economic-consequences-of-the-great-war/#1b9d9c392b21

The Guardian. (n.d.). Haiti earthquake aid pledged by country. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from The Guardian website: https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2010/jan/14/haiti-quake-aid-pledges-country-donations#data

Hammer, J. (2011, May). The great japan earthquake of 1923. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from Smithonian.com website: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/the-great-japan-earthquake-of-1923-1764539/

Institution of International Education. (n.d.). Open doors 2017 executive summary. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from IIE: The Power of International Education website: https://www.iie.org/en/Why-IIE/Announcements/2017-11-13-Open-Doors-2017-Executive-Summary

Kagan, D., Ozment, S., Turner, F. M., & Frank, A. (2014). The western heritage, since 1300 (AP, Eleventh ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson

Knight, R. (2012, April 15). Biodiversity loss: How accurate are the numbers? BBC News. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-17826898

Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen. (2014, January 21). Economic history: The long shadow of world war II. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from ScienceDaily website: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140121130759.htm

Mann, C. C. (2011). 1493: Uncovering the new world columbus created. New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf

Nunn, N., & Qian, N. (2010, Spring). The columbian exchange: A history of disease, food, and ideas. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24(2), 163-188. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/25703506

Sluyter, A. (2001, June). Colonialism and landscape in the americas: Material/Conceptual transformations and continuing consequences. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 91(2), 410-428. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3651268

United Nations. (n.d.). Our history. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from United Nations Peacekeeping website: https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/our-history

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2017, August 29). EPA's budget and spending. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency website: https://www.epa.gov/planandbudget/budget

Weiskel, T. C. (1983, January). Rubbish and racism. The Yale Review, LXXII(2), 225-244. Retrieved from http://ecoethics.net/Papers/Rubbish-and-Racism.pdf

Weiskel, T. C. (1987, Winter). Agents of empire: Steps toward an ecology of imperialism. Environmental Review: ER, 11(4), 275-288. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3984136

Williams, M. (2014). Deforesting the earth: From prehistory to global crisis: an abridgment [Ebook Central]. Retrieved from https://ks.kent-school.edu:2271/lib/kentschool/detail.action?docID=547719&query=deforestation since 1500#

The World Bank Group. (2007, March 15). Restoring china's loess plateau. Retrieved April 3, 2018, from The World Bank website: The World Bank Group. "Restoring China's Loess Plateau." World Bank. March 15, 2007. Accessed April 03, 2018. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2007/03/15/restoring-chinas-loess-plateau.




How to Cite

Zhou, F. (2018). A “FRONTIER” OR A “SPHERE”: AN ESSAY ON A LEGACY OF EUROPEAN COLONIALISM. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 4(2), 304–314. https://doi.org/10.20319/pijss.2018.42.304314