A TEACHERS’ SURVEY ON PORTRAYAL OF SEXISM IN THE IMAGES OF IRANIAN EFL SCHOOL TEXTBOOKS
Keywords:Sexism, Portrayal of Sexism, EFL Textbooks, Images
The current study was an attempt to investigate the Iranian English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’ opinion on sexism in the images of the Iranian EFL school textbooks. In order to achieve these objectives, 40 (20 male and 20 female) EFL teachers from junior high and high schools in Tehran participated in this study. The data was obtained using a questionnaire which was previously piloted. Findings indicate that all of the teachers are aware of sexism in the images of the current EFL school textbooks and also believe that the books do not represent both genders equally. The findings also show that the teachers detest sexism in the images and would like to eradicate it from textbooks. In addition, the participants believe that textbooks need to be revised to represent both genders equally. According to the results of the current study, the teachers are aware of what actually happens in the educational contexts and they all believe that this type of sexism in the textbooks can have negative effects on students’ behavior toward the other gender in the society. They also highlighted that sexism in the images may impact students future decisions on the study field or their choice of profession. The implications of the study are for the EFL policy makers and textbook writers and EFL teachers.
Agarwal, C. & Shukla, N. M. (2017). A Study of In-service Teachers’ Attitude Towards Gender Discrimination. Educational Quest. An International Journal of Education and Applied Social Science, 8(1), 187-192. https://doi.org/10.5958/2230-7311.2017.00028.9
Amerian, M. & Esmaili, F. (2015). Language and gender: A critical discourse analysis on gender representation in a series of international ELT textbooks. International Journal of Research Studies in Education, 4(2), 3-12.
Amini, M., & Birjandi, P. (2012). Gender Bias in the Iranian High School EFL Textbooks. English Language Teaching, 5(2), 134-147. https://doi.org/10.5539/elt.v5n2p134
Ansary, H., & Babaii, E. (2003). Subliminal Sexism in Current ESL/EFL Textbooks. Asian EFL, 5(1), Article 1.
Baghdadi, M. & Rezaei, A. (2015). Gender Representation in English and Arabic Foreign Language Textbooks in Iran: A Comparative Approach. Journal of International Women's Studies, 16(3), Article 2.
Bahman, M. & Rahimi, A. (2010). Gender representation in EFL materials: an analysis of English textbooks of Iranian high schools. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 273–277. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.149
Demir, Y., & Yavuz, M. (2017). Do ELT coursebooks still suffer from gender inequalities? A case study from Turkey. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 13(1), 103-122.
Ebadi, S. & Shahbazian, F. (2015). Investigating Gender Representation in Iranian EFL Textbooks. English for Specific Purposes World, 1(16).
Esmaili, F. & Amerian, M. (2014). Gender Representation in Iranian High School English Textbooks with a Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW), 5(4), 277‐289.
Gharbavi, A and Mousavi, S. A. (2012b). A Content Analysis of Textbooks: Investigating Gender Bias as a Social Prominence in Iranian High School English Textbooks. English Language and Literature Studies, 1 (1), 42-49. https://doi.org/10.5430/elr.v1n1p42
Ghorbani, B. (2009). An Investigation of the Manifestation of Sexism in EFL/ESL Textbooks. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED505434.pdf
Hall, M. (2014). Gender Representation in Current EFL Textbooks in Iranian Secondary Schools. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 5 (2), 253-261. https://doi.org/10.4304/jltr.5.2.253-261
Jannati, S. (2015). Gender Representation in EFL Textbooks: A Case of ILI Pre-intermediate Series. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 2(3), 211-222.
Kazemi, S. A., Asadi Aidinlou, N. Savaedi, Y., & Alaviniya, M. (2013). Subliminal Culture, Sexism, and Hidden Curriculum in the Internationally Distributed Interchange Textbooks. Advances in Environmental Biology, 7(7), 1233-1243.
Law, W. K. & Chan, H. N. A. (2004). Gender Role Stereotyping in Hong Kong’s Primary School Chinese Language Subject Textbooks. AJWS, 10(1):49-69. Retrieved from http://ewhawoman.or.kr/down/data/0704043%20Law%20and%20Chan.pdf? PHPSESSID=3f3fd9f75a26a4ef292ee2b5d306ea07 https://doi.org/10.1080/12259276.2004.11665965
Lee, J. F. K. & Collins, P. (2008). Gender Voices in Hong Kong English Textbooks Some Past and Current Practices. Sex Roles Journal, 59(1-2), 127-137. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/3044242r88h75056/fulltext.html https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-008-9414-6
Paivandi, S. (2008). Discrimination and Intolerance in Iran’s Textbooks. Retrieved from http://www.freedomhouse.org/uploads/press_release/IranTextbookAnalysis_FINAL.pdf
Riazi, A. M. 2003. What textbook evaluation schemes tell us? A study of the textbook evaluation schemes of three decades. In W. A. Renanda. (Ed.), Methodology & materials design in language teaching (pp: 52-68). Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Center.
Tahriri, A. & Moradpour, P. (2014). Gender Representation in ‘Top-Notch’ series: A critical discourse analysis perspective. International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 3(2), 39-51. https://doi.org/10.5861/ijrsp.2014.633
UNESCO (2005). United Nations’ Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization Education Sector Division for the Promotion of Quality Education Section of Education for Peace and Human Rights. Printed in France. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001437/143736eb.pdf
Vahdatinejad, S. & Bahiyah Abdul Hamid. (2017a). A Teachers’ Survey on Linguistic Sexism in Iranian EFL School Textbooks. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World (IJLLALW), 14 (1), 53-66.
Vahdatinejad, S., & Bahiyah Abdul Hamid. (2017b). Linguistic Sexism in the Iranian EFL Junior High School Textbooks. Journal of Advance Research in Humanities and Social Science, (2)2, 1-19.
Vahdatinejad, S. (2017c). Linguistic Sexism in the Iranian High School EFL Textbooks. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 3 (2), 746 – 761, DOI-https://dx.doi.org/10.20319/pijss.2017.32.746761
Wilson, C. (2001). Visuals & Language Learning: Is There A Connection? ELT Newsletter, (48).
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2018 Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.