Received: 29th April 2021; Revised: 28th July 2021, 7th August 2021, 18th October 2021; Accepted: 1st December 2021


  • Ruth Frimpomaa Anarfi Gordon Zhengzhou University, School of History, Zhengzhou City-45001, Henan-province, China



War, Feminism, Sexual Violence, The Rape Capital, The DRC


War is an event, at its occurrence destroys nations. More than five million lives were claimed during the conflict of the DRC. It caused heinous destruction to properties, infrastructure, impeded national growth, and caused a lot of citizens, especially women and girls to suffer greatly, in addition, stereotyping the nation as “the rape capital of the world”. It is against this background that this study sought to delve into the case of the DRC to explore why the DRC was tagged “the capital of rape in the world”. To find out why rape was used as a weapon of war against women and girls. To explore whether it was a way of money-making by the influence of external bodies or a belief. This study employed a qualitative approach relying on administered questionnaires, literature from publications, presented papers, journals, books, and useful websites. Pert the findings or results, rape cases in the DRC is not a belief, but rare cases and in a way, money-making on the part of some NGOs and indigenes. This paper concludes with some questions: Are neighbouring countries and international organizations still trooping in to exploit the natural resources of DRC? Is the DRC truly the “rape capital of the world”? Is this not a myth or probably a stereotype since some NGOs offer natives the platform to inflate the figures based on forging rape to get medical attention? This is a wake-up call for the African Union, the United Nations, Human Rights Watch etc. to take strict measures to curb the menace (violence against women and girls during conflicts or wars).


Amnesty International, Rape as a Tool of War: A Fact Sheet, 2007.

Baaz, M.E., & Stern, M. (2009). Why Do Soldiers Rape? Masculinity, Violence, and Sexuality in the Armed Forces in the DRC, International Studies Quarterly 53(2), 495-518.

Brown, C. (2011). Rape as a weapon of war; in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Cammaert, P. (2008). A Peacekeeping Commander’s Perspective: From Headquarters and the Field. The RUSI Journal 153 (3), 68-71, 2008.

Duncan, N. (Ed.). (2004). Self, community and psychology. Juta and Company Ltd.

Easteal, P. (2011). Sexual Assault Law in Australia: Contextual Challenges and Changes. International approaches to rape, 13.

Gentleman, J. (2007). Rape Epidemic Raises Trauma of Congo War. New York Times.

International Rescue Committee, (2007). Measuring Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Katanga and Ngudjolo Chui Cases Coalition for the International Criminal Court. Retrieved from on Aug. 3, 2015.

Green, R. (1987). The" sissy boy syndrome" and the development of homosexuality. Yale University Press.

Harris, S., Jefferson-James, L., Ligon, A. D., Davis, C., Adelabu, D. H., Wynn, M. F., ... & Nelson, T. A. (2015). Real Sister: Stereotypes, Respectability, and Black Women in Reality TV. 31. Rutgers University Press.

Lundberg-Love, P. K. (1999). The resilience of the human psyche: Recognition and treatment of the adult survivor of incest. The Psychology of Sexual Victimization: A Handbook, 1.

Pratt, M. & Werchick, L.J.D. (2004). Sexual Terrorism: Rape as a Weapon of War in The Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. USAID/DCHA ASSESSMENT REPORT Sexual Terrorism: Rape as a Weapon of War in Eastern. An assessment of programmatic responses to sexual violence in North Kivu, South Kivu, Maniema, and Orientale Provinces January 9-16, 2004. Retrieved June 2016.

Penn, M. L., Nardos, R., Hatcher, W. S., & Radpour, M. K. (2003). Overcoming violence against women and girls: the international campaign to eradicate a worldwide problem. Rowman & Littlefield.

Simon, R., Rathborne, J. M., Shah, R. Y., Jackson, J. M., & Chambers, E. T. (2006). The characterization and galactic distribution of infrared dark clouds. The Astrophysical Journal, 653(2), 1325.

Tear fund HIV & SV Unit, (2014). Men, Faith and Masculinities: DRC, a baseline assessment on the relation attitudes, relations and practices of men concerning gender and sexual-based violence in the DRC 2014. Retrieved June 2016

The International Peace Research Institute, 2001.

UNIFEM, (2010). Facts and Figures on Violence against Women, Crimes against Women in Situations of Armed Conflict.

Wolf, S., Aber, J. L., Torrente, C., Rasheed, D., & McCoy, M. (2014). Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Large-Scale Education Initiative in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Pilot Year Impacts on Teacher Development. Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness.

Wax, E. (2003). A generation orphaned by AIDS. The Washington Post, August, 13, A18.

World Health Organization. (2008). Eliminating female genital mutilation: an interagency statement-OHCHR, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNECA, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNHCR, UNICEF, UNIFEM, WHO. World Health Organization. UNIFEM




How to Cite

Gordon, R. F. A. (2021). THE INTERRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RAPE AND CONSTRUCTIONS OF MASCULINITY AND DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO (DRC): Received: 29th April 2021; Revised: 28th July 2021, 7th August 2021, 18th October 2021; Accepted: 1st December 2021. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 7(3), 42–58.