Received: 03rd June 2021; Revised: 22nd August 2021, 11th November 2021, 24th February 2022; Accepted: 04th March 2022


  • Francesco Martinazzo Ph.D., Candidate, Architecture, Built Environment, and Construction Engineering Department (ABC), Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy



School Buildings, Learning Environments, Teaching Practices, Educational Technologies, Third Teacher


In Italy, the theme of the school, and more generally of education in the broadest sense, already in turmoil before the epidemic, seems to be exploding today in all its urgency, both because of the instances - above all pedagogical - of transformation brought by the pandemic itself (which from this point of view has acted as a catalyst), and because of the uncertain consequences of a building heritage that now largely needs to be restored, because it is architecturally and technologically inadequate. This has led to the structuring of a literature review that takes into account two main time spans: on the one hand, that of the 1960s-1970s (often called "the golden age of school"), investigated through the international architectural journals of that period, where the typology-technology problem emerges strongly; on the other hand, the selection (through Scopus, WoS, etc.) of current or recent studies and pedagogical experiences related to new technologies. The criterion for the choice of case studies is therefore based on their propulsive potential in relation to today's transformation needs, seeking to consider the school as an organism and not merely as a set of functional parts (as much current literature does).


Australian Academy of Science (2020), “Differential learning outcomes for online versus in-class education”, Rapid Research Information Forum, available at:

Ansa (2020, December 22). Istat, in 2019 still a negative record for births - Italy. The Limited Times.

Benade, L. (2020). Is the classroom obsolete in the twenty-first century? Design, Education and Pedagogy, 6–17.

Bøjer, B. (2020, January 20). Unlocking learning spaces: An examination of the interplay between the design of learning spaces and pedagogical practices. Architecture, Design, and Conservation - Danish Portal for Artistic and Scientific Research.

Colomina, B., & Buckley, C. (2010). Clip, stamp, fold The radical architecture of little magazines 196X To 197X. Actar, Barcelona.

Cuyvers, K., et al. (2011), Well-Being at School: Does Infrastructure Matter?, CELE Exchange, Centre for Effective Learning Environments, No. 2011/10, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Derboven J., Geerts D., De Grooff D. (2017), Appropriating virtual learning environments: A study of teacher tactics, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing, Volume 40, June, pp. 20-35.

Dudek, M. (2000). The Architecture of Schools: The New Learning Environments. Routledge.

Edwards, C., Gandini, L., & Forman, G. (2011). Hundred languages of Children, The: The Reggio Emilia experience in transformation. Praeger, Santa Barbara.

Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli. (2020). Rapporto Sull'Edilizia Scolastica. GLF editori Laterza, Roma-Bari. ISBN: 9788858139622

Gobbi A., and Rovea F. (2021), Distance teaching and teaching ‘as’ distance. a critical reading of online teaching instruments during and after the pandemic, Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, pp. 71-87.

Hilli C. (2020), Extending classrooms through teacher collaboration in Virtual Learning Environments, Educational Action Research, Volume 28, Issue 4, 7 August, pp. 700-715.

Leschiutta, F. E. (1970). Nuova architettura per la scuola: Proposte di rinnovamento tipologico. Armando Armando, Roma.

MIUR (2013), Nuove line guida per l’edilizia scolastica.

Nietzsche, F., & Colli, G. (2012). Sull'avvenire delle Nostre scuole. Adelphi.

Pezzetti L.A. (2020), ‘Space-Places and Third Teacher: The Issue of Architectural Space in the Age of Knowledge Cities and Schools 3.0, Research for Development, pp. 225-235.

Sahlberg, P. (2020). Will the pandemic change schools? Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 5(3/4), 359–365.




How to Cite

Martinazzo, F. (2022). INNOVATION AND CHANGES IN THE DIDACTIC SPACE: Received: 03rd June 2021; Revised: 22nd August 2021, 11th November 2021, 24th February 2022; Accepted: 04th March 2022. MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology, 8(1), 33–51.