MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology 2022-08-05T10:15:32+00:00 Editor, MATTER: International Journal of Science & Technology Open Journal Systems <div id="focusAndScope"> <p><strong>ISSN 2454-5880</strong></p> </div> EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL SITUATION IN NARTA LAGOON, VLORA, ALBANIA 2022-07-15T08:28:33+00:00 Aurora Bakaj Hajdar Kiçaj hajdarkiç Mariola Ismailaj Xhuljana Arapaj Sibora Mehmeti <p>Narta Lagoon is one of the biggest Lagoons in Albania. It is situated in the southern part of the Vjosa River delta. Two canals in the northwest and southwest parts of the lagoon connect it to the Adriatic Sea. These artificial canals enable the water exchange process with the sea during tidal flow. Vjose - Narta area is considered a Protected Landscape, so environmental monitoring is important. Setting and design: Water samples were taken monthly, at six evenly distributed sample stations. The study was conducted from January – to December 2018. Materials and methods: The assessment of microbial contamination was performed with the MPN method. Total coliform, fecal coliform, and fecal streptococci were tested as fecal contamination indicators. PH and salinity were the physicochemical parameters analyzed. Conclusions: the cleanest sampling station is the one near contact with the seawater. The most polluted stations are stations 2, 4, and 6. Temperature values range from 5 <sup>o</sup>C in January to 33 <sup>o</sup>C in August. Lagoon pollution is caused by an anthropogenic factor as well as a lack of appropriate cleaning strategies.</p> 2022-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 BOOSTING THE HARVESTING OF NIGERIA’S ABUNDANT RENEWABLE ENERGY POTENTIALS AND LEGAL IMPLICATIONS 2022-07-19T10:32:29+00:00 T C Chineke J O Ozuomba M C Anumaka J C Ojiaka O C Akwuegbu <p>Renewable energy has been highlighted not only as a means of satisfying the energy needs of Nigerians but also as a tool for the country's growth, thereby improving the income of the citizens who have more energy to work with, serving as the energy source for domestic and office use, in addition to reducing the carbon footprint from the conventional fossil fuels. From data obtained from the Photovoltaic Geographic Information System (PVGIS), the solar electricity potential at some selected cities in Southern Nigeria that ranges from 4.5 to 6.5 kWh/m<sup>2</sup> has been presented as a tool, which when properly harnessed, can be used to mitigate avoidable energy-related “national disasters” such as unemployment and youth-restiveness, thereby accelerating Nigeria’s development. There is the urgent need to revise and effectively implement helpful laws and policies that support the addition of renewable energy sources for electricity generation. Lack of a coherent legal framework with incentives for the utilization of renewable energy is among the key factors causing poor utilization of renewable energy in Nigeria. Governmental and stakeholder collaboration is highly necessary for developing countries to robustly track renewable electricity adoption via laws aimed at boosting its adoption.</p> 2022-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 PROPERTIES OF OXYGEN AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO EINSTEIN'S SPECIAL RELATIVITY THEORY 2022-07-21T06:19:27+00:00 Kin Onn Low Kee Tong Khoo Ying Yao Koon Jia Xin Chua <p>Oxygen has been shown able to be released from aqueous water when the water flows through magnetic fields. Such a production process is called magneto synthesis and it is successful when the principle of induced current took place. Oxygen produced from this newly discovered process possessed properties differently when compared to the photosynthesis process. This study can be made when the magneto synthesis process was carried out closed to the saturation point of oxygen dissolution equilibrium in aqueous water. At the saturation point, the exchange of oxygen atoms or molecules between these two processes has happened. This interchange state allowed a unique single steep-drop characteristic to be observed. The single steep-drop characteristic of the magneto synthesis process provides two pieces of evidence on the properties of oxygen; they are heavier by mass and higher by oxidative power. The unique properties as discovered are supported by Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory. In this matter, gamma-ray flashes are thought to produce when the hydrogen-electron pairs are formed. A mechanism where gamma-ray flashes could be produced was proposed and sufficient evidence for gamma-ray flashes to occur was outlined. The gamma-ray flashes are the clue in the inter-permutable between the mass and energy. This is the clue to let the special relativity theory take a place.</p> 2022-07-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 THE EFFECTS OF SYSTEM PARAMETERS ON THE INCEPTION OF FLASHING USING RELAP5 2022-08-05T10:15:32+00:00 Bello Mary Olubunmi Peng Minjun Xia Genglei <p>Natural circulation systems (NCS) are prone to instabilities, they are more unstable compared to forced circulation systems as a result of the low driving head and nonlinearity of the system. Flashing instability is prominent in these systems at low pressure due to the presence of a long nonheated riser to enhance the driving force. RELAP5 code has been identified as one of the Best Estimate (BE) codes used in the analysis of the systems. The studies by different authors showed that the effects of system parameters on instability generally have gained the attention of researchers in recent years. However, these studies have not discussed how these parameters prevent or enhance the commencement of flashing instability. This we sought to achieve in this work, by zeroing in on the inception of flashing instability, by comparing what happened at different heat fluxes. The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of system parameters on the inception of flashing instability in a natural circulation system using the RELAP5 code. With the increase in inlet subcooling and height of the riser, flashing moved to the outlet of the riser, stabilizing the system. However, an opposite effect was observed with an increase in the inlet resistance.</p> 2022-08-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022