MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology <div id="focusAndScope"> <p><strong>ISSN 2454-5880</strong></p> </div> Global Research & Development Services Publishing en-US MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology 2454-5880 <p><strong>Copyright of Published Articles</strong></p> <p>Author(s) retain the article copyright and publishing rights without any restrictions.</p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />All published work is licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> THE HIJIRI CALENDAR AND ITS CONFORMANCE WITH THE GREGORAIN CALENDAR BY MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS <p><em>The objective of this research is to develop a mathematical procedure to construct a Hijri calendar that is consistent with the Gregorian calendar. Our hypothesis was derived from the Quran Chapter, Alkahf verse (25), which states “T</em><em>hey remained in their cave for three hundred years, adding nine</em><em>”. We understand this verse to mean “every 300 solar years equivalent exactly to 309 lunar years”. The starting point was to locate the number of days for each month of each Hijri year. We found that the distribution of number of days per month coincided in the two rounds of the 309 Hijri years. Accordingly, we prepared a list of number of days per month for 1545 Hijri years. Hence, we constructed Hijri calendar starting consecutively from 1 Muharram 1AH to any Hijri Date. We considered the Gregorian Date consistent with the first of Ramadan 1442AH as a relevant reference versus the historical reference of the migration of Prophet Mohammed </em><em>صلى الله عليه وسلم</em><em> to Medina. Finally, we compared our results with previous official dates Therefore any Gregorian date corresponds to Hijri date could be known. </em></p> Salih Hamza Abuelyamen Copyright (c) 2023 Salih Hamza Abuelyamen 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 9 1 01 19 10.20319/mijst.2023.91.0119 DEVELOPMENT OF A TOPICAL GEL CONTAINING A DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE-4 INHIBITOR FOR WOUND HEALING APPLICATIONS <p><em>Chronic wounds are challenging for healthcare because they are difficult to treat and cannot heal by themselves. Active compounds that can accelerate wound healing are, therefore, necessary. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors are antihyperglycemic drugs widely used in patients with type 2 diabetes that not only maintain the homeostasis of blood sugar levels but have also been shown to promote chronic wound healing. In this study, we formulated a topical gel containing, sitagliptin, a commonly used DPP-4 inhibitor drug to treat diabetes, using Carbopol 940 as a base due to its high viscosity and biocompatibility. The characteristics of the sitagliptin gel, including its physical appearance, viscoelastic properties, swelling and degradation, and stability, were investigated. The gel appeared to be transparent with a uniform distribution of drug molecules and was stable at 4 °C for more than 1 month. Moreover, the gel was shown to exhibit shear thinning pseudoplastic behavior, which is desirable for topical gels. The gel could absorb up to 250% of liquid within 2 days but later degraded in aqueous solution following zeroth-order kinetics. In the in vitro release study, the cumulative release data were best fitted with the first order kinetic model, in which the release rate depended on the concentration. To further demonstrate the use of the DPP-4 inhibitor gel, the gel was applied directly onto subcutaneous wounds on experimental pigs. The topical gel was shown to exhibit the desired spread ability without causing any inflammation around the wound area which was comparable to IntraSite® gel and commercial silver nanoparticle cream.</em></p> Phawini Pokrathok Pornprom Muangman Nantaporn Namviriyachote Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat Copyright (c) 2023 Phawini Pokrathok, Pornprom Muangman, Nantaporn Namviriyachote, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 9 1 20 34 10.20319/mijst.2023.91.2034 REVIEW OF VIBRATION-BASED SURFACE & TERRAIN CLASSIFICATION FOR WHEEL-BASED ROBOT IN PALM OIL PLANTATION <p><em>Palm oil can grow in almost flexible topography. On flats, slopes, hilly, or undulating areas and whether on inland or reclaimed coastal areas. This makes the palm oil plantation environment unique with various soil types &amp; surfaces. Each surface has a unique physical characteristic that directly influences the driving, handling, power efficiency, stability and safety of a robot. A mobile robot should have knowledge not limited to obstacles, but also the surface that the robot traverses to estimate wheel slippage and apply corrective measures. This paper discusses the harshness factors in palm oil plantation estates and the effects on wheel traction. We then present our review of several vibration-based surface classification techniques. Based on our survey, a combination of multimodal sensory for surface classification is more suitable to identify surfaces and terrain in palm oil plantations.</em></p> Bukhary Ikhwan Ismail Hishamadie Ahmad Shahrol Hisham Baharom Mohammad Fairus Khalid Muhammad Nurmahir Mohamad Sehmi Copyright (c) 2023 Bukhary Ikhwan Ismail, Hishamadie Ahmad, Shahrol Hisham Baharom, Mohammad Fairus Khalid, Muhammad Nurmahir Mohamad Sehmi 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 9 1 35 48 10.20319/mijst.2023.91.3548 STUDY OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN YOGYAKARTA CITY USING LOCAL CLIMATE ZONE APPROACH <p><em>Yogyakarta urban area has increased significantly for the past ten years and altered ecological features, such as inducing urban heat island (UHI).</em><em> Our objectives are examining UHI characteristics in Yogyakarta urban with atmospheric variables which include air temperature and relative humidity and analyzing the UHI distribution using the LCZ method. This study uses the LCZ classification to spatially compare thermal characteristic and explain how land use and building geometry affect UHI. The system comprises 17 standard classes at the local scale, using quantitative approach which includes numerical data, such as aspect ratio, building heights, and street canyons to support the classification system</em><em>. Three LCZ classes found in Yogyakarta urban area are LCZ 3, LCZ 5, and LCZ 6. The LCZ variables which affect temperature and relative humidity are building heights, width of street canyons, and land use. The biggest thermal difference is ΔLCZ3-LCZ5 and ΔLCZ3-LCZ6, which happened during 08.00 – 12.00 and 16.00 – 20.00. </em><em>Small UHI magnitude (&lt; 2K) is affected by small difference in morphology and fabric. Medium UHI magnitude (2 – 5K) is mostly caused by large difference in fabric and small difference in morphology. </em><em>In the future, the LCZ should be widely applied for urban planning regarding climatic mitigation.</em></p> Cahya Nur Rahmah Emilya Nurjani Copyright (c) 2023 Cahya Nur Rahmah, Emilya Nurjani 2023-07-14 2023-07-14 9 1 49 65 10.20319/mijst.2023.91.4965 IMPLEMENTATION OF BIORHYTHM GRAPH WITH TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS USING PYTHON <p><em>This study aimed to implement the researcher's biorhythm graph using a programing language called Python in relation to trigonometric functions. The etymology of biorhythm is a combination of two Greek words, Bio, which means life, and Rhythm, which means regular and accurate rhythm, and means the rules of human life rhythm. In other words, the biorhythm is a theory that everyone is governed by three rhythm curves called physical rhythm, emotional rhythm, and intellectual rhythm that start inside the body from birth to death. During this study, biorhythm and trigonometric functions were studied, and biorhythm graphs were implemented with trigonometric functions when the researcher's date of birth was entered through Python. A biorhythm graph was implemented based on Python, the most used programming language. The Python syntax used in the algorithm is typically a sympy function, a datetime function, arrange function, and a function. The value obtained after implementing the algorithm using this grammar is as follows. This is the result of implementing a biorhythm graph using the algorithm implemented by the two researchers. This paper can be used in various fields related to the relationship between biorhythms and trigonometric functions.</em></p> Kang Gyu Bee Jeon Ye Won Copyright (c) 2023 Kang Gyu Bee, Jeon Ye Won 2023-07-15 2023-07-15 9 1 66 73 10.20319/mijst.2023.91.6673 TOOL WEAR OF (AL, CR, W) N-COATINGS ON CEMENTED CARBIDE TOOLS PREPARED BY ARC ION PLATING IN DRY CUTTING OF SINTERED STEEL <p><em>To improve both the critical scratch load and micro-hardness of (Al, Cr) N coating film, (Al, Cr, W) N coating film was developed. In this study, to clarify the tool wear of the coated tool in the cutting of sintered steel using four types of (Al, Cr, W) N coated tools, the wear progress and the wear mechanism of the coating film were investigated. By using two types of the (Al, Cr, W)-target and three types of bias voltage, the (Al, Cr, W) N coating film was deposited on cemented carbide ISO K10. To clarify the wear mechanism of the (Al, Cr, W) N coating films, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) mapping analysis of the abraded coating film were performed. The cutting conditions were a cutting speed of 3.33 m/s, feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev, and cutting depth of 0.1 mm. The following results were obtained: (1) The wear progress of the (Al64, Cr28, W8) N coated tool was slower than that of the (Al60, Cr25, W15) N coated tool. (2) When nitride coating films were deposited on the cemented carbide ISO K10 with a bias voltage of -80 V, -150 V, or -300 V using the (Al64, Cr28, W8)-target, the wear progress of the (Al64, Cr28, W8) N coated tool with a bias voltage of -80 V was the slowest.</em></p> Tadahiro Wada Copyright (c) 2023 Tadahiro Wada 2023-07-15 2023-07-15 9 1 74 84 10.20319/mijst.2023.91.7484