MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology <div id="focusAndScope"> <p><strong>ISSN 2454-5880</strong></p> </div> Global Research & Development Services Publishing en-US MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology 2454-5880 <p><strong>Copyright of Published Articles</strong></p> <p>Author(s) retain the article copyright and publishing rights without any restrictions.</p> <p><a href=""><img src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />All published work is licensed under a <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICALS <p><em>The Refinery and Petrochemical industry in Nigeria plays a vital role in the country's economy. Nigeria is the largest oil producer in Africa and has significant oil reserves. The industry involves the refining of crude oil into various petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel, as well as the production of petrochemicals used in manufacturing processes. The Nigerian government has been making efforts to revitalize and expand the country's refining and petrochemical capabilities. This includes the construction of new refineries and the rehabilitation of existing ones to increase production capacity and reduce the country's dependence on imported petroleum products. The industry also presents opportunities for job creation and economic growth. It provides employment for a significant number of people, both directly and indirectly, through various stages of the value chain. Additionally, the development of petrochemical facilities can attract investments and contribute to the growth of other industries in Nigeria. However, challenges such as inadequate infrastructure, security concerns, and regulatory issues need to be addressed to fully harness the potential of the Refinery and Petrochemical industry in Nigeria. </em></p> Nosakhare Ojo Copyright (c) 2024 Nosakhare Ojo 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 01 01 10.20319/icstr.2024.01 COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF THERMAL PERFORMANCE AND TIME-LAG IN RESIDENTIAL APARTMENTS: A NUMERICAL SIMULATION STUDY ON PHASE CHANGE MATERIAL WITH MYCELIUM INTEGRATION IN AMMAN <p><em>This study explores the feasibility of enhancing energy efficiency in residential buildings within the climatic conditions of Amman, Jordan, by introducing a novel material termed "Phase Change Material with Mycelium Integration (PCMMI)." Utilizing numerical simulations via Autodesk-Revit, the thermal performance of a typical residential building was evaluated, comparing conventional construction materials with PCMMI. The investigation focused on three crucial components: external walls (W.01), roof (R.01), and ground floor slab (S.01), all of which initially failed to meet prescribed thermal transmittance codes. Integration of PCMMI successfully improved the building envelope's thermal performance, aligning with Jordanian regulations for thermal insulation. Additionally, a parametric analysis assessed the time-lag of materials in the residential envelope, revealing an average delay of approximately 8 hours. This delay implies that, with the addition of the PCMMI layer, the envelope requires 8 hours to transmit outdoor temperatures (e.g., 30°C) to the interior's peak temperature, thereby showcasing the material's potential in mitigating energy demand.</em></p> Dalia Salah Swiety Copyright (c) 2024 Dalia Salah Swiety 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 02 03 10.20319/icstr.2024.0203 EFFECTS OF ADDING CALCIUM CHLORIDE IN ELECTROLYTES ON THE REMOVAL EFFICIENCY OF HEAVY METALS IN SOIL BY VERTICAL ELECTRO-KINETIC METHOD <p><em>Soil heavy metal pollution is an important environmental issue, and the electro kinetic method has been considered as an effective remediation technology for removing heavy metals from soil. In electro kinetic study, the properties of the electrolyte such as pH value, electrical conductivity and surface tension are the essential factors affecting the soil remediation efficiency. A previous study has shown that the Effective Microorganisms (EM) could be a potential electrolyte for soil electro kinetic experiment. This study tested the effect of adding additional calcium chloride in EM combined with vertical electric flushing method on soil heavy metal removal. The test soil sample was collected from farmland polluted by heavy metals in Changhua County in Taiwan, and the soil mainly contained copper and zinc.&nbsp; After 21 days of vertical electric flushing study, the total copper removal rate followed the following order: EM+0.01M calcium chloride (54.8%) &gt; EM (31.25%) &gt; EM+0.05 M (19.67%). The total zinc removal rate followed the following order: EM (69.36%)&gt; EM+0.01M calcium chloride (65.71%) &gt; EM+0.05M calcium chloride (55.55%). Overall as the concentration of calcium chloride added to the EM bacterial solution increase. </em><em>Overall, adding 0.01 M calcium chloride in EM could significantly improve the copper removal efficiency. But for zinc, adding calcium chloride does not significantly help the removal rate of zinc</em>.</p> Kuan-Yu Peng Copyright (c) 2024 Kuan-Yu Peng 2024-01-31 2024-01-31 04 05 10.20319/icstr.2024.0405 EFFICIENT DETECTION OF MULTICLASS EYE DISEASES USING DEEP LEARNING MODELS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY <p><em>Eye diseases are a significant health concern that adversely impacts human life. Cataracts,</em><br><em>diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma are some of the diseases that cause irreversible and serious</em><br><em>health problems. Eye health is greatly influenced by age, genetics, and environmental factors.</em><br><em>Proper diagnosis of eye ailments is crucial, as it ensures accurate and effective treatment. The</em><br><em>proximity of disease detection to error for accurate and personalized treatment intensifies the</em><br><em>clinician's responsibility further. Developing technology and deep learning make it feasible to</em><br><em>determine if an individual has an eye disease, and to identify the specific disease. The objective of</em><br><em>this research is to design resolutions for detecting significant health issues such as eye diseases</em><br><em>with the aid of deep learning models. DenseNet, EfficientNet, Xception, VGG, and ResNet</em><br><em>architectures, which are prominent Convolutional Neural Network models, are utilized to address</em><br><em>the issue at hand. Technical term abbreviations are explained where first used. The dataset</em><br><em>7</em><br><em>employed for detecting diseases in retinal fundus images consists of a total of 4217 images,</em><br><em>comprising 1038 cataracts, 1098 diabetic-retinopathy, 1007 glaucoma, and 1074 healthy</em><br><em>individuals. The performance of the tested models was assessed using evaluation metrics such as</em><br><em>accuracy, recall, precision, F1-score, and Matthews's correlation coefficient metrics through 10-</em><br><em>fold cross-validation. Upon analysis of the classification performances, the EfficientNet model</em><br><em>obtained the best results for these evaluation metrics at 87.84%, 92.84%, 94.41%, 93.53%, and</em><br><em>83.87%, respectively. Thus, EfficientNet architecture delivered the best classification performance</em><br><em>in this context.</em></p> Çağatay Berke Erdaş Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 06 16 10.20319/icstr.2024.0616 INTELLIGENT NUMERICAL METHOD FOR STUDYING MHD MAXWELL WILLIAMSON NANOFLUID FLOW WITH BIO-CONVECTION AND ACTIVATION ENERGY <p><em>The use of artificial intelligence and its techniques has become increasingly widespread in recent times. It is being used to solve problems in various fields, especially in solving stiff non-linear equations that are considered mathematical models that represent a problem and predict results with high accuracy, effectiveness, and speed. Additionally, nanofluids play a pivotal role in studying heat transfer, particularly in the field of solar energy and its sources. All of this was the reason and motivation for doing this work. This work investigates a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic stretched flow (2D-MHDSF) of Maxwell Williamson nanofluid (MWNF) affected by bioconvection and activation energy numerically through Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation method (LMBM)-based supervised artificial neural network approach (ANN). The mathematical formulation for the problem was obtained through non-linear partial differential equations (PDEs). The leading PDEs were transmitted into non-linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformation variables. The reference results for the 2D-MHDSF-MWNF model are produced by the Lobatto IIIA method through different scenarios of specific parameters for the flow velocity, fluid temperature, nanoparticle concentration, and motile density profiles. Using the obtained results as a dataset to apply the testing, training, and validation steps of the suggested ANN-LMBM for the 2D-MHDSF-MWNF model. The mean squared error, fitting curve, analysis of regression, and error histograms are presented to prove the efficiency and precision of the proposed method.&nbsp;The numerical results of ANN-LMBM are displayed as a study of the effects of different physical factors on flow dynamics for 2D-MHDSF-MWNF. For larger values of magnetic parameter, the flow velocity decreases while the distribution of the temperature, concentration rates, and microorganism density increase. </em><em>The increasing value for the activation energy parameter leads to a rise in the concentration</em><em>. </em><em>In the future, analyze the impact of the activation energy on various nano-fluidic models by applying the proposed method LMBM.</em></p> Eman Fayz A. Alshehery Copyright (c) 2024 2024-02-29 2024-02-29 17 18 10.20319/icstr.2024.1718 RESPONSE SOLUTIONS OF 2-DIMENSIONAL ELLIPTIC DEGENERATE QUASI-PERIODIC SYSTEMS WITH SMALL PARAMETERS <p><em>This paper concerns quasi-periodic perturbations with parameters of 2-dimensional degenerate systems. If the equilibrium point of the unperturbed system is elliptic-type degenerate. Assume that the perturbation is real analytic quasi-periodic with diophantine frequency. Without imposing any assumption on the perturbation, we can use a path of equilibrium points to tackle with the Melnikov non-resonance condition, then by the Leray-Schauder Continuation Theorem and the</em> <em>Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser technique, it is proved that the equation has a small response solution for many sufficiently small parameters.</em></p> Song Ni Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 19 19 10.20319/icstr.2024.19 ROGUE WAVES ARISING ON THE STANDING PERIODIC WAVE IN THE HIGH-ORDER ABLOWITZ-LADIK EQUATION <p><em>The</em><em> &nbsp;nonlinear &nbsp;Schr¨odinger &nbsp;(NLS) &nbsp;equation &nbsp;models &nbsp;wave &nbsp;dynamics &nbsp;in &nbsp;many &nbsp;physical problems related to fluids, plasmas, and optics. The standing periodic waves are known to be modulationally unstable and rogue waves (localized perturbations in space and time) have been observed on their backgrounds in numerical experiments. The exact solutions for rogue waves arising on the periodic standing waves have been obtained analytically. It is natural to ask if the rogue waves persist on the standing periodic waves in the integrable discretizations of the integrable NLS equation. We study the standing periodic waves in the semidiscrete integrable system modeled by the high-order Ablowitz-Ladik (AL) equation. The standing periodic wave of the high-order AL equation is expressed by the Jacobi cnoidal elliptic function. The exact solutions are obtained by using the separation of variables and one-fold Darboux transformation. Since the cnoidal wave is modulationally unstable, the rogue waves generated on the periodic background.</em></p> Yanpei Zhen Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 20 34 10.20319/icstr.2024.2034 LAW ENFORCEMENT AGAINST TRADEMARK INFRINGEMENT IN INDONESIA <p><em>Trademark as part of intellectual property rights is one of the most important elements in the business world. Trademark protection is one form of legal certainty required by investors, both domestic and foreign. The legal certainty also expects law enforcement against trademark infringement. The number of trademark infringement that occurred in Indonesia from 2015 to 2023 shows an increasing trend. The</em><em> purpose</em><em>s</em><em> of this </em><em>research are to</em> <em>explore</em><em> and analyze</em><em> regarding the cause of trademark infringement and to investigate how efforts should be made to solve and reduce the number of trademark infringements in Indonesia. This research is normative legal research underpinned by interviews as well as through library research by tracing secondary data, using documentation methods and instrument in the form of document studies. Interviews were conducted with resource persons using interview guidelines. Then, data were analyzed using qualitative analysis.The result shows that the reason for trademark infringement is economic reasons. The offending party has bad intentions and assumes that the business whose trademark is to be imitated has good potential and person concerned can obtain a reasonable profit (good turnover potential) if using the same or similar trademark. The second is the party whose trademark is used by another party without rights needs to make a complaint about the trademark infringement because the violation/ infringement of intellectual property rights (including trademark infringement) is a complaint of violation that must be reported by the injured party to the law enforcer. This research is expected to provide input to the government and law enforcer in Indonesia related to law enforcement against trademark infringement that occurred in Indonesia.</em></p> Etty Indrawati Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 35 46 10.20319/icstr.2024.3546 THE MANAGEMENT OF COMMERCIAL APARTMENT IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF UNIT OWNERS’ PROSPERITY IN INDONESIA (Case Study in Apartemen Pondok Indah Villa III Jakarta and Apartemen Sejahtera Yogyakarta, Indonesia) <p><em>The purpose of the research is to find out the managemenrt of commercial apartment relating to the prosperity of the unit owners. It uses empirical legal research by examining the operation of management of the apartment by case study at&nbsp; Apartemen Pondok Klub Villa III Jakarta and Apartemen Sejahtera Yogyakarta, in the perpective of the prosperity of the unit owners. The result shows that both apartment management embody the prosperity of the unit owners eventhough with&nbsp; different management and result. In the cases, the Apartemen Pondok Klub Villa III Jakarta is managed by association body of owners, while Apartemen Sejahtera Yogyakarta is managed by a company established by th­e committee of association body of owners.&nbsp; These different management results different benefit to the unit owners of the apartement.</em></p> Maria Hutapea Copyright (c) 2024 2024-03-15 2024-03-15 47 52 10.20319/icstr.2024.4752 CONFIGURABLE NAIVE BAYES IMPLEMENTATION ON FPGA USING PARTIAL RECONFIGURATION <p><em>The Naive Bayes classifier is a fundamental algorithm in machine learning, known for its simplicity and effectiveness in various predictive modeling scenarios. However, its deployment in real-time applications demands efficient hardware implementations that can adapt dynamically to varying computational needs and model specifications. This work presents a novel FPGA-based implementation of Naive Bayes classifiers that leverages partial reconfiguration to enhance flexibility and resource efficiency. Our method employs a modular architecture that allows seamless switching among various Naive Bayes models, such as Gaussian, Multinomial, and Bernoulli, enhancing system flexibility without halting ongoing processes. By utilizing partial reconfiguration, our implementation minimizes the FPGA resource utilization, enabling more efficient use of hardware. We thoroughly evaluate our system, focusing on reconfiguration time and resource efficiency. We demonstrate that our approach provides the operational flexibility needed for real-time data processing tasks, enabling quick adaptation to variable data types and distributions without interrupting ongoing processes. This adaptive framework supports dynamic scenarios, facilitating immediate updates in response to evolving conditions with minimal downtime.</em></p> Achraf El Bouazzaoui Copyright (c) 2024 2024-05-14 2024-05-14 53 54 10.20319/icstr.2024.5354 BIOCHEMICAL AND TRANSCRIPTOMIC ANALYSIS OF DISEASE RESISTANCE AND EARLY-MATURITY RELATED GENES IN NMR-191 AND NMR-192 RICE MUTANT LINES <p><em>Malaysia's rice industry has revealed that the rice production was unable to supply the food demand where nearly 30% was imported from other countries. This is due to the fact that rice cultivation in Malaysia faces concerns about rice blast disease, Magnaporthe oryzae attack, and having a long maturation period. As such, generation of new rice mutant lines that possess improved disease resistance and early maturity characteristics through mutation breeding techniques are of great importance. This study aimed to analyze the biochemical characteristics as well as to validate the presence of disease resistance and early maturity-related genes in rice mutant lines. After the rice seeds of the parent line Pongsu Seribu 2 (PS2) and mutant lines (NMR191 and NMR192) were grown for 14 days, the plant samples underwent biochemical tests including total soluble protein content, specific activity of peroxidase, chlorophyll content and proline content. The RNA extraction and sequencing were also conducted for the purpose of transcriptomic profiling analysis to determine the presence of disease resistance and early maturity genes in the samples. The biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the total soluble protein content, chlorophyll content, and proline content in the mutant line NMR191 and NMR192 compared to the parent line, while the specific activity of peroxidase in the mutant lines was significantly lower compared to the parent line. The transcriptomic profiling analysis revealed that Os07g0129300, Os12g0270300, and Os03g0235000 were the disease-resistance genes whereas Os03g0195300, Os01g0704100, Os11g0143200, Os06g0569900, and Os06g0568600 were the early maturity genes found in NMR191 and NMR192. This study validates that NMR191 and NMR192 could be better varieties than the parent line due to the presence of their early maturity and disease resistance traits.</em></p> Anna Pick Kiong Ling Copyright (c) 2024 Anna Pick Kiong Ling 2024-05-21 2024-05-21 55 56 10.20319/icstr.2024.5556. PREDICTING COLLEGE DROPOUT LIKELIHOOD BASED ON HIGH SCHOOL AND COLLEGE DATA: A MACHINE LEARNING APPROACH <p><em>College dropout rate is a significant problem, especially in the US higher education system. Among all undergraduate students, up to 40% drop out before completing their degree. This significantly impacts students and Universities alike financially and in wasted efforts. Previous research shows that there are early indicators of college success in the high school record such as grades, attendance, disciplinary incidents, and ACT/SAT scores. Additionally, there are factors in college experiences, especially in the first year of college which impact the likelihood of dropout. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no comprehensive model that can accurately predict the likelihood of college dropout and provide an early warning either in high school and/or the first year of college. We were fortunate to get access to longitudinal ten-year data of high school graduates of public schools in a county in the United States and were able to follow a subset of students who went to a specific public University. Based on more than one hundred variables from high school and college records and students’ final status we trained various machine learning models to predict the likelihood of student dropout and identify factors that play a significant role. Based on this information a prototype decision support system was developed and evaluated.</em></p> Hemant Jain Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-04 2024-06-04 57 58 10.20319/icstr.2024.5758 SIMULATION, DISCUSSION AND COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INDOOR AIR CIRCULATION EFFICIENCY OF AIR PURIFIERS WITH DIFFERENT AIR INLET AND OUTLET TYPES <p><em>In today's society, people pay more and more attention to indoor air quality. Whether it is a home, office or conference room, using air purifiers has become commonplace. When purchasing an air purifier, most people focus on factors such as performance, price, and air purification efficiency. There are many types of air purifiers on the market, but there are currently few studies on the indoor air circulation efficiency of air purifiers with different air inlet and outlet types. Therefore, this study used the theoretical basis of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Fluent software to simulate indoor space and analyze flow field characteristics. They explored the effects of different air outlet forms and placements on air circulation in the conference room. The impact will be analyzed in a systematic way, and suggestions and plans for improving indoor environmental quality and comfort will be put forward. Preliminary research results point out that when the air purifier is running at high speed, use the top air outlet, front return air, and left and right air outlet back air return configurations. The air purifier has the best average wind speed. This discovery helps people configure air purifiers more effectively to improve indoor air quality and enhance people's comfort</em>.</p> Tsao Ping-Chih Copyright (c) 2024 2024-06-07 2024-06-07 59 60 10.20319/icstr.2024.5960