MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter <div id="focusAndScope"> <p><strong>ISSN 2454-5880</strong></p> </div> Global Research & Development Services Publishing en-US MATTER: International Journal of Science and Technology 2454-5880 <p><strong>Copyright of Published Articles</strong></p> <p>Author(s) retain the article copyright and publishing rights without any restrictions.</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by-nc/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a><br />All published work is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License</a>.</p> THE HIJIRI CALENDAR AND ITS CONFORMANCE WITH THE GREGORAIN CALENDAR BY MATHEMATICAL CALCULATIONS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/1973 <p><em>The objective of this research is to develop a mathematical procedure to construct a Hijri calendar that is consistent with the Gregorian calendar. Our hypothesis was derived from the Quran Chapter, Alkahf verse (25), which states “T</em><em>hey remained in their cave for three hundred years, adding nine</em><em>”. We understand this verse to mean “every 300 solar years equivalent exactly to 309 lunar years”. The starting point was to locate the number of days for each month of each Hijri year. We found that the distribution of number of days per month coincided in the two rounds of the 309 Hijri years. Accordingly, we prepared a list of number of days per month for 1545 Hijri years. Hence, we constructed Hijri calendar starting consecutively from 1 Muharram 1AH to any Hijri Date. We considered the Gregorian Date consistent with the first of Ramadan 1442AH as a relevant reference versus the historical reference of the migration of Prophet Mohammed </em><em>صلى الله عليه وسلم</em><em> to Medina. Finally, we compared our results with previous official dates Therefore any Gregorian date corresponds to Hijri date could be known. </em></p> Salih Hamza Abuelyamen Copyright (c) 2023 Salih Hamza Abuelyamen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 9 01 19 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.0119 DEVELOPMENT OF A TOPICAL GEL CONTAINING A DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE-4 INHIBITOR FOR WOUND HEALING APPLICATIONS https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/2058 <p><em>Chronic wounds are challenging for healthcare because they are difficult to treat and cannot heal by themselves. Active compounds that can accelerate wound healing are, therefore, necessary. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4 inhibitors are antihyperglycemic drugs widely used in patients with type 2 diabetes that not only maintain the homeostasis of blood sugar levels but have also been shown to promote chronic wound healing. In this study, we formulated a topical gel containing, sitagliptin, a commonly used DPP-4 inhibitor drug to treat diabetes, using Carbopol 940 as a base due to its high viscosity and biocompatibility. The characteristics of the sitagliptin gel, including its physical appearance, viscoelastic properties, swelling and degradation, and stability, were investigated. The gel appeared to be transparent with a uniform distribution of drug molecules and was stable at 4 °C for more than 1 month. Moreover, the gel was shown to exhibit shear thinning pseudoplastic behavior, which is desirable for topical gels. The gel could absorb up to 250% of liquid within 2 days but later degraded in aqueous solution following zeroth-order kinetics. In the in vitro release study, the cumulative release data were best fitted with the first order kinetic model, in which the release rate depended on the concentration. To further demonstrate the use of the DPP-4 inhibitor gel, the gel was applied directly onto subcutaneous wounds on experimental pigs. The topical gel was shown to exhibit the desired spread ability without causing any inflammation around the wound area which was comparable to IntraSite® gel and commercial silver nanoparticle cream.</em></p> Phawini Pokrathok Pornprom Muangman Nantaporn Namviriyachote Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat Copyright (c) 2023 Phawini Pokrathok, Pornprom Muangman, Nantaporn Namviriyachote, Kwanchanok Viravaidya-Pasuwat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 9 20 34 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.2034 REVIEW OF VIBRATION-BASED SURFACE & TERRAIN CLASSIFICATION FOR WHEEL-BASED ROBOT IN PALM OIL PLANTATION https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/2091 <p><em>Palm oil can grow in almost flexible topography. On flats, slopes, hilly, or undulating areas and whether on inland or reclaimed coastal areas. This makes the palm oil plantation environment unique with various soil types &amp; surfaces. Each surface has a unique physical characteristic that directly influences the driving, handling, power efficiency, stability and safety of a robot. A mobile robot should have knowledge not limited to obstacles, but also the surface that the robot traverses to estimate wheel slippage and apply corrective measures. This paper discusses the harshness factors in palm oil plantation estates and the effects on wheel traction. We then present our review of several vibration-based surface classification techniques. Based on our survey, a combination of multimodal sensory for surface classification is more suitable to identify surfaces and terrain in palm oil plantations.</em></p> Bukhary Ikhwan Ismail Hishamadie Ahmad Shahrol Hisham Baharom Mohammad Fairus Khalid Muhammad Nurmahir Mohamad Sehmi Copyright (c) 2023 Bukhary Ikhwan Ismail, Hishamadie Ahmad, Shahrol Hisham Baharom, Mohammad Fairus Khalid, Muhammad Nurmahir Mohamad Sehmi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-03-15 2023-03-15 9 35 48 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.3548 STUDY OF URBAN HEAT ISLAND IN YOGYAKARTA CITY USING LOCAL CLIMATE ZONE APPROACH https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/2139 <p><em>Yogyakarta urban area has increased significantly for the past ten years and altered ecological features, such as inducing urban heat island (UHI).</em><em> Our objectives are examining UHI characteristics in Yogyakarta urban with atmospheric variables which include air temperature and relative humidity and analyzing the UHI distribution using the LCZ method. This study uses the LCZ classification to spatially compare thermal characteristic and explain how land use and building geometry affect UHI. The system comprises 17 standard classes at the local scale, using quantitative approach which includes numerical data, such as aspect ratio, building heights, and street canyons to support the classification system</em><em>. Three LCZ classes found in Yogyakarta urban area are LCZ 3, LCZ 5, and LCZ 6. The LCZ variables which affect temperature and relative humidity are building heights, width of street canyons, and land use. The biggest thermal difference is ΔLCZ3-LCZ5 and ΔLCZ3-LCZ6, which happened during 08.00 – 12.00 and 16.00 – 20.00. </em><em>Small UHI magnitude (&lt; 2K) is affected by small difference in morphology and fabric. Medium UHI magnitude (2 – 5K) is mostly caused by large difference in fabric and small difference in morphology. </em><em>In the future, the LCZ should be widely applied for urban planning regarding climatic mitigation.</em></p> Cahya Nur Rahmah Emilya Nurjani Copyright (c) 2023 Cahya Nur Rahmah, Emilya Nurjani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-07-14 2023-07-14 9 49 65 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.4965 IMPLEMENTATION OF BIORHYTHM GRAPH WITH TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS USING PYTHON https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/2121 <p><em>This study aimed to implement the researcher's biorhythm graph using a programing language called Python in relation to trigonometric functions. The etymology of biorhythm is a combination of two Greek words, Bio, which means life, and Rhythm, which means regular and accurate rhythm, and means the rules of human life rhythm. In other words, the biorhythm is a theory that everyone is governed by three rhythm curves called physical rhythm, emotional rhythm, and intellectual rhythm that start inside the body from birth to death. During this study, biorhythm and trigonometric functions were studied, and biorhythm graphs were implemented with trigonometric functions when the researcher's date of birth was entered through Python. A biorhythm graph was implemented based on Python, the most used programming language. The Python syntax used in the algorithm is typically a sympy function, a datetime function, arrange function, and a function. The value obtained after implementing the algorithm using this grammar is as follows. This is the result of implementing a biorhythm graph using the algorithm implemented by the two researchers. This paper can be used in various fields related to the relationship between biorhythms and trigonometric functions.</em></p> Kang Gyu Bee Jeon Ye Won Copyright (c) 2023 Kang Gyu Bee, Jeon Ye Won https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-07-15 2023-07-15 9 66 73 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.6673 TOOL WEAR OF (AL, CR, W) N-COATINGS ON CEMENTED CARBIDE TOOLS PREPARED BY ARC ION PLATING IN DRY CUTTING OF SINTERED STEEL https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/2071 <p><em>To improve both the critical scratch load and micro-hardness of (Al, Cr) N coating film, (Al, Cr, W) N coating film was developed. In this study, to clarify the tool wear of the coated tool in the cutting of sintered steel using four types of (Al, Cr, W) N coated tools, the wear progress and the wear mechanism of the coating film were investigated. By using two types of the (Al, Cr, W)-target and three types of bias voltage, the (Al, Cr, W) N coating film was deposited on cemented carbide ISO K10. To clarify the wear mechanism of the (Al, Cr, W) N coating films, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) mapping analysis of the abraded coating film were performed. The cutting conditions were a cutting speed of 3.33 m/s, feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev, and cutting depth of 0.1 mm. The following results were obtained: (1) The wear progress of the (Al64, Cr28, W8) N coated tool was slower than that of the (Al60, Cr25, W15) N coated tool. (2) When nitride coating films were deposited on the cemented carbide ISO K10 with a bias voltage of -80 V, -150 V, or -300 V using the (Al64, Cr28, W8)-target, the wear progress of the (Al64, Cr28, W8) N coated tool with a bias voltage of -80 V was the slowest.</em></p> Tadahiro Wada Copyright (c) 2023 Tadahiro Wada https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-07-15 2023-07-15 9 74 84 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.7484 LOSS ANALYSIS IN BREAD PRODUCTION PROCESS USING MATERIAL FLOW COST ACCOUNTING TECHNIQUE https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/2215 <p class="paragraph" style="margin: 0cm; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%; vertical-align: baseline;"><span class="normaltextrun"><em><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 150%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">The case study factory manufactures a range of bread and bakery products for distribution in the North of Thailand. Losses from the production process were recently discovered, which besides being lost costs, also impacted the environment. This research is conducted under the concept of Material Flow Cost Accounting (MFCA) to analyze the losses from each process of the case study bread factory. This is to pinpoint where most of the losses occur and suggest methods for future improvement. This research is conducted with the principle of Plan Do Check Action (PDCA). The “Plan” was to determine a target product, which in this case was raisin bread, as it accounted for the largest proportion of production. Subsequently, a study was conducted of the production process, and a scope under the “Do” stage of the procedure was determined. Input and output factors were identified for each Quantity Center (QC) in both physical units and financial units. Subsequently at the “Check” stage, an analysis of costs was conducted for each QC with the MFCA technique. This was divided into positive product, meaning costs generating revenue, and which were manifest in the product, and negative product, which were costs not generating revenue and were losses from each production stage. Finally, at the “Action” stage, negative products were ranked using Pareto diagram to identify and evaluate opportunities for improvement. The research found that the total costs to produce one production lot of raisin bread were 2,935.55 THB, which were divided into materials costs of 2,270.79 THB (77.35%), system costs of 500.30 THB (17.04%) and energy costs of 164.46 THB (5.60%). Overall, negative product was 25.19%, of which negative product in material costs was 19.41%. This negative product was wastage and losses from dough and fillings being deposited in the machinery, and the failure of packaging films when they were being installed in the packing machine. It was also found that negative materials costs arose maximum in the QC of packing. The conclusions from this research are that it has informed about losses arising in the production process and evaluated them in the form of costs, which should help in proposing methods to reduce this wastage in the future.</span></em></span><span class="eop"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';"> </span></span></p> Bunyaporn Yoddee Rungchat Chompu-inwai Copyright (c) 2023 Bunyaporn Yoddee, Rungchat Chompu-inwai https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 9 85 100 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.85100 MECHANICAL ACTIVATION OF LIZARDITE BY DRY GRINDING FOR ENHANCED MINERAL CARBONATION https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/2246 <p><em>Mechanical activation of Ca/Mg silicates by grinding is a pre-treatment of some mineral carbonization processes. In this study, the mechanical activation of lizardite ore from a chromite beneficiation plant waste by grinding in a stirred media mill was studied. For grinding studies, grinding times of 10-20-30 min and stirring speeds of 600-800-1000-1200 rpm were the parameters investigated, while the ball charge rate was 60% and the ore charge rate was kept constant at 40%. This way, the effects of grinding time and stirring speed on particle size distribution and energy consumption were investigated. At the end of the grinding studies, the stirring speed was determined as 1200 rpm, and the grinding time was 10 min for the finer particle size distribution (d<sub>10</sub>: 2,7 µm, d<sub>50</sub>: 13,6 µm, d<sub>90</sub>: 57.6 µm) with less energy consumption (130.4 kWh/ton).</em> <em>FT-IR analyses proved that the samples were dehydroxylated by the milling process.</em> <em>As a result, according to the analysis performed after grinding, it can be said that the finer product obtained can be used in mineral carbonation processes.</em></p> Hakan Çiftçi Copyright (c) 2023 Hakan Çiftçi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 9 101 112 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.101112 EFFECT OF CRYOGENIC AND NATURAL AGING PROCESS APPLIED TO Al-Zn-Mg-Cu ALLOYS ON LIFE TIME CALCULATION https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/2216 <p><em>In this study, life time calculation of aluminum 7075 alloy with cryogenic and natural aging processes was performed by thermal analysis.</em> <em>The aluminum alloy was quenched after solid solution treatment at 480°C and naturally aged for 10-100 days at room temperature (25°C). Other samples were cryogenically treated at -40°C and -80°C for 2 hours after solid solution treatment at 480°C. After the cryogenic treatment, natural aging was done at room temperature for 10-100 days.</em> <em>At the end of each period determined for the samples, the hardness values were measured. It was observed that there was no significant change in hardness values at the end of 10 and 100 days at -80 °C. Thus, it was determined that the natural aging process does not start after cryogenic treatment at -80 °C. It was observed that the hardness value of naturally aged samples after cryogenic treatment at -40 °C increased more than the natural aged samples only. This showed that -40 °C improved the mechanism by creating a driving force in the material. Life time calculations between 30 °C and 320 °C also showed that -40 °C cryogenic treatment + natural aging increased life time by approximately 20% compared to natural aging alone.</em></p> Gözde Altuntaş Onur Altuntaş Bülent Bostan Copyright (c) 2023 Gözde Altuntaş, Onur Altuntaş, Bülent Bostan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 9 113 126 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.113126 LEARNING EFFECTIVENESS AMONG TERTIARY STUDENTS USING AUGMENTED REALITY (AR)-BASED FOR ADAPTING TO INDUSTRY 4.0 https://grdspublishing.org/index.php/matter/article/view/2255 <p>This study aimed to explore the correlation among AR-based learning effectiveness (ARLE), AR <br>learning beliefs (ARLB), creative learning self-efficacy (CLS), and AR learning motivation<br>(ARLM) of tertiary students in Taiwan. Participants had 378 tertiary students who from 15 school, <br>and used path analysis model of the structural equation model (SEM) based on the questionnaire <br>survey. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between the AR Learning <br>Beliefs (ARLB) and AR Learning Motivation (ARLM) of tertiary student. It is found that higher <br>correlation between ARLB, ARLM and Creative Learning Self-Efficacy (CLS). There was a <br>significant positive correlation between ARLE and ARLB, and can effectively explain ARLE. This <br>study confirms that CLS is an important factor and an impact mediating factor between ARLB and <br>ARLM. In addition, CLS can also influence ARLE through ARLM.</p> Chun-Mei Chou Tsu-Chi Shen Tsu-Chuan Shen Chien-Hua Shen Tzu-Ling Liu Copyright (c) 2023 Chun-Mei Chou, Tsu-Chi Shen, Tsu-Chuan Shen, Chien-Hua Shen, Tzu-Ling Liu https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 2023-12-30 2023-12-30 9 127 141 10.20319/mijst.2023.9.127141