• Eva Guilherme Menino Health Research Unit (UIS) –School of Health Sciences (ESSLei), Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (IPL), Leiria, Portugal
  • Maria dos Anjos Coelho Rodrigues Dixe Health Research Unit (UIS) – School of Health Sciences (ESSLei), Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (IPL), Leiria, Portugal
  • Maria Clarisse Carvalho Martins Louro Health Research Unit (UIS) – School of Health Sciences (ESSLei), Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (IPL), Leiria, Portugal



Diabetes Mellitus, Therapeutic Education, Validation Studies


Nursing interventions in diabetes education are considered relevant in order to achieve proper outcomes. It is important to know what nurses do in this field and for this purpose we need valid and reliable instruments. Objective: To develop and determine the psychometric characteristics of Diabetes Education Process Scale (DEP). Methods: Based on the question “What interventions nurses develop in their practice in diabetes education?", we developed two studies: (a) a qualitative one in order to identify relevant variables to measure in diabetes education; and (b) a quantitative and methodological study of validation of DEP scale. Results: We identified four guidelines in qualitative study through which emerged the relevant variables for the evaluation of therapeutic education. We applied this DEP Scale to a sample of 104 nurses, with an average age of 41.3 years (SD = 8.1). DEP Scale has in its dimensions α values between 0.6720 and 0.834, revealing reasonable internal consistency. The scale revealed also validity characteristics. Conclusion: We concluded that it is important to know nurses practices in order to let emerge their contribution to patient care. For this purpose, we need valid and reliable instruments. DEP Scale proved itself to be valid and reliable, so it can be used to access nurses´ interventions in diabetes education. 


Almeida, L., & Freire, T. (2007). Metodologia da Investigação em Psicologia e Educação (4ª ed.).Braga: Psiquilíbrios Edições.

Bardin, L. (2009). Análise de Conteúdo. Lisboa: Edições 70

Bryman, A., & Cramer, D. (2003). Análise de Dados em Ciências Sociais (3ª ed.). Lisboa: Celta Editores.

Campos, L., Saturno, P., & Carneiro, A. (2010). A Qualidade dos Cuidados e dos Serviços. Plano Nacional de Saúde 2011-2016. Acedido em 5 janeiro de 2012 em

Chang, A. M., Gardner, G. E., Duffield, C., & Ramis, M. A. (2010). A Delphi study to validate an advanced practice nursing tool. Journal of Advanced Nursing,66(10), 2320-2330

Coutinho, C. (2011). Metodologia de Investigação em Ciências Sociais e Humanas: Teoria e Prática (2ª ed.). Coimbra: Almedina.

European Hospital and Healthcare Federation. (2010). Chronic diseases. A clinical and managerial challenge. Retrieved from 84_HOPE_Publication-Chronic_diseases-October_2010.pdf

Fehring, R. (1987). Methods to validate Nursing Diagnosis. Retrieved from fac/27

Fortin, M. (2009). Fundamentos e etapas do processo de investigação. Loures: Lusociência.

Haggerty, J. L., Reid, R. J., Freeman, G. K., Starfield, B. H., Adair, C. E., & McKendry, R. (2003). Continuity of care: a multidisciplinary review. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 327(7425), 1219-1221.

Hair J., Hult G., Ringle C., Sarstedt M. (2013). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Sage Publications.

Menino, E., Dixe, M. A., Louro, M. C. M., & Roque, S. M. B. (2013). Programas de educação dirigidos ao utente com diabetes mellitus tipo 2: revisão sistemática da literatura. Revista de Enfermagem Referência, (10), 135-143.

Nam, S., Chesla, C., Stotts, N. A., Kroon, L., & Janson, S. L. (2011). Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 93(1), 1-9.

Pestana, M., & Gageiro, J. (2005). Análise de dados para Ciências Sociais. Lisboa: Edições Sílabo.

Streiner, D., & Norman, G. (2008). Health Measurement scales: a pratical guide to their development and use. New York: Oxford University Press




How to Cite

Menino, E. G., Dixe, M. A. C. R., & Louro, M. C. C. M. (2015). CONSTRUCTION AND VALIDATION OF “DIABETES EDUCATION PROCESS (DEP)” SCALE. LIFE: International Journal of Health and Life-Sciences, 1(01), 01–12.

Most read articles by the same author(s)