Canan Yıldırım Demirkıran, Mehmet Gençer


The purpose of this study is to explore the literature of social capital on career development.  The various theoretical models drawn through social capital theory and the impacts derived on career progress are highlighted.

Within this scope, the theoretical background and literature search on social capital and human capital management career development are deeply investigated. The major gaps within the literature, under this scope of social capital on human resources are identified. The social capital and hybrid theoretical frameworks are evaluated and suggestions for the future academic researchers have been described.

One of the major findings of this research is that, it highlights the lack of hybrid theoretical models including social capital on career progress. The main proposition of social capital creating an advantage for accessing and utilizing career opportunities is verified through various researches with exceptions. Another identified gap was the commonality of the methodology as well as the commonalities of the professionals’ records under investigation. The professionals under focus had major commonalities like graduation from the same university or working for the same company and mainly the academia. The results of this work aims to enlighten the academic literature of social capital and career development with possible future research questions


Social Capital, Career Development, Human Resources Management, Promotion.

Full Text:



Aime, F., Dyne, L. V., & Petrenko, O. V. (2011). Role innovation through employee social networks: The embedded nature of roles and their effect on job satisfaction and career success. Organizational Psychology Review, 1, 339–361.

Arthur, M.B., & Rousseau, D.M. (Eds.). (1996). The boundaryless career: A new employment principle for a new organizational era. New York: Oxford University Press.

Becker, G. S. (1964). Investment in human capital: A theoretical analysis. Journal of Political Economy, 70, 9-49.

Becker, G. S. (1975). Human Capital. Chicago University Press, Chicago, IL

Bottomore, T. (1991). The marxist thought. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.

Bourdieu P. (1986). The forms of capital. In J.E. Richardson (Ed.), Handbook of theory of research for the sociology of education (pp.241-258). New York: Greenwood Press.

Brass, D. J. (1995). A social network perspective on human resources management. In G. R.

Ferris (Ed.). Research in personnel and human resources management, Vol. 13. (pp. 39–79). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.

Cappellen, T., & Janssens, M. (2005). Career paths of global managers: towards future research. Journal of World Business, 40 (4), 348–360.

Carrington, PJ, Scott, J., Wasserman, S., 2005. Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Christophersen, E.R. (2017). Career development and promotion in an academic health center. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 24 (1), 41–46.

Claussen, J., Grohsjean, T., Luger, J., & Probst, G. (2014). Talent management and career development: What it takes to get promoted. Journal of World Business, 49(2), 236-244.

Coleman, J. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120.

Collin, A., & Young, R.A (2000). The future of career, Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Dobbs, R.L, Sun, Y.J., & Roberts, B. P. (2008). Human capital and screening theories: Implications for human resource development. Advances in Developing Human Resources,10(6), 788-801.

EO Laumann, PV Marsden, D. Prensky, (1989). Research methods in social network analysis, George Mason University Press.

Evans, W. R., & Davis, W. D. (2005). High-performance work systems and organizational

Ezzamel M., Hoskin K., & Macve, R. (1990). Managing it all by numbers: A review of Johnson and Kaplan’s Relevance Lost. Accounting and Business Research, 20 (78), 153-66.

Freeman, L. C. (1979). Centrality in social networks: I. Conceptual clarification. Social Networks, 1, 215-239.

Friesen, M. R. (2011). Immigrants' integration and career development in the professional engineering workplace in the context of social and cultural capital, Engineering Studies

Friesen, M. R. (2011). Immigrants' integration and career development in the professional engineering workplace in the context of social and cultural capital, Engineering Studies, 3 2.

Ganiron, T. U. (2013). Social capital and career success of civil engineers towards designing career paths. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 102, 611-621.

Goudard M., & Lubrano, M., (2013). Human capital, social capital and scientific research in Europe: An application of linear hierarchical models. The Manchester School, 81(6).

Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360–1380.

Gubbins, C., & Garavan, T. (2016). Social Capital Effects on the Career and Development Outcomes of HR Professionals. Human Resource Management, 55(2), 241-260.

Hall, D.T., & Associates. (1996). The career is dead: Long live the career: A relational approach to careers. San Francisco: Jossey – Bass.

Harris, C. M., Pattie, W. M., & McMahan G. C. (2015). Advancement along a career path: the influence of human capital and performance. Human Resource Management Journal, 25 (1).

Heppner, M. J., & Jung K.A. (2013). Gender and social class: Powerful predictors of a life journey. In Walsh W.B., Savickas M.L., & Hartung P.J. (Eds), Handbook of vocational psychology, theory, research and practice. (4th ed.). (pp.81-102). New York: Routledge.

Ibarra, H., & Desphande H.P. (2007). Networks and Identities, In Gunz, H., & Peiperl, M. (Eds.), Handbook of career studies (pp 268-280). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Iellatchitch, A., Mayrhofer, W.,& Meyer, M. (2003). Career fields: a small step towards a grand career theory. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(5), 728–750.

Kang, J.H., Callahan, J.L., & Anne, M. (2015). An intersectional social capital model of career development for international marriage immigrants, The Career Development Quarterly,63, 238-252.

Kerfoot, D.,& Knights, D.(1992). Planning for personnel human resource management: Reconsidered. Journal of Management Studies, 29 (5), 651-668.

LaRue, B., Childs, P., & Larson, K. (2006). Leading organizations from the inside out: Unleashing the collaborative genius of action learning teams (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Wiley.

Lee, H.K. (2010). Family migration issues in North-East Asia. Retrieved from International Organization for Migration website:

Lin N., Cook K., & Burt, S.R. (2001). Social capital theory and research. New York: Walter de Gruyter Press.

Lin, N. (1999). Social networks and status attainment. Annual Review of Sociology, 25, 467–487.

Lin, N. (2000). Inequality in social capital. Contemporary Sociology, 29, 785–795.

Lin, N. and Erikson, B.H. (2008). Social Capital: An international research program. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 1-26.

Mbuh, K. E. (2015). The Importance of English Language for Career Opportunities in the Asean. People: International Journal of Social Sciences, 1(1).

McMohan M., Watson M., & Patton W. (2014). Context resonant systems perspectives in career theory. In Arulmani, G.; Bakshi, Anuradha J; Leong, Frederick T. L.; & Watts, T. (Eds), Handbook of career development, international and cultural psychology. (pp. 29-4). New York: Springer.

Metz I., & Tharenou P., (2016). Women’s career advancement: The relative contribution of human and social capital. Group & Organization Management, 26(3), 312–342.

Meyer, J., Allen, N., & Smith, C. (1993). Commitment to organizations and occupations – extension and test of a 3-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 538-551.

Naim, M. F., & Lenka, U. (2016). Mentoring as an HR Intervention to Engage Gen Y Employees. PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences, 2(1).

Porter, L. W., Steers, R. M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 603-609.

Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. In Culture and politics (pp. 223-234). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Scott, E. S., Kraimer, M. L. & Liden, R. C. (2001). A social capital theory of career success. The Academy of Management Journal, 44(2), 219-237.

Sears, S. J. (1982). A definition of career guidance terms: A national vocational guidance association perspective. Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 31(2), 137–143.

Sobel, I. (1982). Human capital and institutional theories of the labor market: Rivals or complements? Journal of Economic Issues, 16(1), 255-272.

Stanley, W., & Faust, K., (1994). Social Network Analysis, Cambridge University Press, United States of America

Super, D.E. (1953). A theory of vocational development. American Psychologist, 8, 185-190.

Swarnalatha, K. (2013). Human resource strategies towards employee’s engagement practice and involvement – A study of ICICI bank. Journal of Business and Management,14(3).

Tai, H.R, Qi Liu C., Maltese, A. V., & Fan, X. (2006). Career choice -planning early for careers in science. Science, 312, 1143-1144.

Wenchen, G., Xiao H., Yang, X. (2012). An Empirical Research on the Correlation between Human Capital and Career Success of Knowledge Workers in Enterprise. Physics Procedia, 25, 715-725.

Wright, P. M., McMahan, G. C., & McWilliams, A. (1994). Human resources and sustained competitive advantage: A resource-based perspective. International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 5(2), 301-326.


  • There are currently no refbacks.